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Chapter 10 The Union in Peril
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Chapter 10 The Union in Peril

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  1. Chapter 10 The Union in Peril

  2. 10.1 Differences Between North & South: Industry • Sewing Machines • Farm Equipment • Guns • 20k miles of track • Telegraph lines Agriculture • Rural Society • Economy relies on crops – cotton • Rivers – transportation North South

  3. 10.1 Differences Between North & South: • Most immigrants settled in the North • Few settled South – lack of work • Immigrants feared slavery for 2 reasons • Labor competition • Status reduction

  4. David Wilmot introduces bill “neither slavery or involuntary servitude shall ever exist” Bill would ban slavery in territories acquired from Mexico 10.1 Tension Builds

  5. 10.1 The Wilmot Proviso • Provision divides Congress along regional lines Northerners were angry: • Southerners refused to support the American System • Slave States = more members in Congress • Deny economic opportunities to Northern workers

  6. 10.1 The Wilmot Proviso Southerners oppose Proviso: • Raised complex issues – slaves are property • Property protected by Constitution • Law would equate to power shift benefiting the North

  7. 10.1 The Wilmot Proviso Provision passes the House of Representatives, but is rejected by the Senate

  8. California • Population explosion • Constitutional convention held • Constitution adopted • Governor elected • Legislature elected Applies to join Union

  9. Missouri Compromise application desired Resulting in California becoming a… President Taylor – States decision Southern threat – succession California

  10. Senate Debates • California • Border dispute • Abolish slavery in D.C. • Enforce Fugitive Slave Act if 1793

  11. Clay’s Compromise Compromise of 1850 • California free • Popular Sovereignty • More effective slave act • Popular Sovereignty • $10 million to Texas for New Mexico North South

  12. Clay’s Plea • Consequences for non-compliance • Disunion • War • Webster and Calhoun agree on compromise

  13. Compromise is Adopted • Senate rejects compromise • Stephen A. Douglas reintroduces the compromise in sections • Compromise passes after eight months • Secession threat halted

  14. 10.1 Review - WARM-UP • What were the two main reasons that the North feared slavery? • List three or four ways in which the North and South differed? • Describe the Wilmot Provisoand Explain why it was supported by Northerners • Why did California’s application for statehood create an uproar? • What is popular sovereignty? • Who pushed for the passage of the compromise after it was rejected by the Senate?

  15. Warm Up November 161. List three ways in which the North and the South differed in the mid 1800’s.2. Why did California’s application for statehood cause such and uproar?3. What northern issues and southern issues were addressed by the Compromise of 1850?

  16. 1. List three ways in which the North and the South differed in the mid 1800’s.1. The North had an industrial rather than an agricultural economy2. North mainly opposed slavery, while the south relied upon slave labor3. The North had more urban growth as well as more growth in immigrant population2. Why did California’s application for statehood cause such and uproar?While most CA voters opposed slavery, most of the state lay south of the Missouri Compromise line, and therefore legally should have been open to slavery3. What northern issues and southern issues were addressed by the Compromise of 1850?North: banishing of slavery in CA; the restricting of slavery in TX so that it would not include New Mexico.South: a tougher fugitive slave law; money to defray the costs of the War with Mexico (both sides were pleased by popular sovereignty)

  17. 10.1 Review • What were the two main reasons that the North feared slavery? • Labor Competition • Status Reduction • List three ways in which the North and South differed? • Agriculture • Industrial • Slavery • Immigrants

  18. 10.1 Review • Describe the Wilmot Proviso? • Law that would close slavery to new territory acquired from Mexico • Explain why it was supported by Northerners • It prevented the expansion of slavery • Why did California’s application for statehood create an uproar? • Because California banned slavery, thereby making it a free state

  19. 10.1 Review • What is popular sovereignty? • - Residence vote on slavery issue for their state • Who pushed for the passage of the compromise after it was rejected by the Senate? - Stephen Douglas • How was Douglas able to get the compromise to pass Congress? -Unbundling


  21. 10.2 Protest, Resistance, & Violence • Fugitive Slave Act (Personal Voice pg.311 ) (escaped slaves returned to bondage) • Federal Commissioners earned $10if they returned the slave and $5 if they freed them • Personal Liberty Laws – 9 states Forbid imprisonment of slaves and Guaranteed jury trials – drag out • Penalty for helping a slave $1000 fine

  22. Resisting the Law: Northerners: Organize vigilance committees Violence Nine states pass “personal liberty laws” Banned imprisonment of slaves Guaranteed trial by jury 10.2 Protest, Resistance, & Violence

  23. The Underground Railroad: The evolution… A network of free blacks and sympathetic Anglo's (abolitionist) would aid slaves in their escape Slaves hid in secret tunnels or “cupboards” Once North - options 10.2 Protest, Resistance, & Violence

  24. Harriet Tubman Conductor 19 trips 300 slaves Armed with pistol 10.2 Protest, Resistance, & Violence

  25. Chicago, Illinois Detroit, Michigan Sandusky, Ohio Erie, Pennsylvania Boston, Massachusetts Montreal, Canada Destination:

  26. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) Reaction to the book Northerners protest slave act Southerners criticize it as an attack on the South 10.2 Protest, Resistance, & Violence

  27. 10.2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act If Passed; act would… • Repeal the Missouri Compromise • Establish popular sovereignty • Both states north of Missouri Compromise Line • Kansas-Nebraska Act would divide states between North & South • Kansas – South • Nebraska – North - Act becomes law in May 1854

  28. Popular Sovereignty encourage influx The race was on… Northerners & Southerners attempt to populate Kansas. March 1855 minimum population met Missouri residents invade & vote illegally Proslavery wins out in Kansas 10.2 Bleeding Kansas

  29. The Sack of Lawrence • Antislavery settlers establishes town • Proslavery grand jury condemns town • Posse burns headquarters • Loot homes • Destroy towns newspapers printing press

  30. Pottawatomie Massacre • John Brown responds to Lawrence incident • Believed God called on him to fight slavery • Brown believes people were killed in Lawrence • Brown seeks revenge • May 24th he and followers attack 5 men • Hacked off their heads • Incident leads to wide spread violence • 200 people killed, brown leaves Kansas

  31. Violence in Senate • Charles Sumner delivers speech attacking colleagues • Andrew Butler – verbally attacked • Preston Brooks retaliates; hitting Sumner over the head repeatedly with a cane


  33. Warm-up1. Why did Kansas become a center of controversy over the issue of slavery?

  34. 1. Why did Kansas become a center of controversy over the issue of slavery?Because the Kansas-Nebraska Act opened the territory to slavery , and both pro and antislavery forces settled in Kansas and fought for control of its territorial government

  35. Politcal Parties – The birth of the Republican PartyKNOW-NOTHINGS a group to curtail the political influence of immigrants. Whenever a member was asked about the group, he would say, “I know nothing.” They accepted into their group only native born Protestants.FREE SOIL PARTY a short lived political party which opposed the extension of slavery into the territories a “It’s a party for keeping FREE SOIL and not setting men free.”REPUBLICAN PARTY combined anti-slavery Democrats and Free-Soilers – founder Horace Greeley

  36. 10.4 Slavery & Secession • Dread Scott Supreme (racist) Court “slaves were property, not people, and therefore could go into a slave state and still be a slave.” This made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional • The Decision • “Slaves do not have the right of citizens”

  37. Lincoln challenges Douglas The debates focused on slavery in the territories Douglas – though he did not think slavery was immoral, popular sovereignty would allow slavery to pass away on its own 10.4 Lincoln Douglas Debate

  38. Lincoln – “I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races.”He did, however, insist that slavery was a moral, social, and political wrong that should not be allowed to spread.

  39. Lincoln Douglas Debates

  40. October 16, 1859, John Brown leads 21 men Goal: Seize federal arsenal in Virginia Give weapons to slaves in area Start uprising 10.4 Harpers Ferry

  41. Military attacks house where Brown held hostages 10 of Brown’s men die Brown captured & charged with treason December 2, 1859 – hung Brown viewed as a martyr in North Harpers Ferry Antislavery & Violent

  42. 10.4 Election of 1860 Republican Nomination: • Senator William Seward v. Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln win nomination Other Presidential Candidates: • J.C Breckinridge – Southern Democrat • Stephen A. Douglas – Northern Democrat • John Bell – Constitutional Union

  43. 10.4 Southern Secession • The election proved that the south no longer had a political voice. • South Carolina responds • William Sherman (Personal Voice 330) Southern States take note: • Mississippi • Florida • Alabama • Georgia • Louisiana • Texas

  44. 10.4 Southern Secession • February 4, 1861- Confederate States of America • Constitution created: • Slavery “protected & recognized” • Each State “Sovereign & Independent” Former U.S. Senator Jefferson Davis elected president

  45. 10.4 Southern Secession • Seven slave states secede but eight remain • Members of Congress & Cabinet resign • President Buchanan confused & unsure what steps needed to be taken.

  46. Chapter 10 Review1/6 • What region of the country favored the Wilmot Proviso? North • Clay, Calhoun and Webster supported the Compromise of 1850 • Secession • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Members of the Know-Nothing Party did not support rights of immigrants

  47. Chapter 10 Review 2/6 • Horace Greeley was one of the founders of the Republican Party. • The topic of the Lincoln-Douglas debate was the issue of slavery in the territories • Know all seven Confederate states • West Virginia refused to secede • The fact that the Southern economy was rural & consisted of mostly plantations its economy became dependant on slavery