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Carbon. Ch 4. Chemistry of Life. Organic Chemistry – study of carbon compds. C atoms are versatile building blocks bonding properties…complexity/diversity to living matter 4 stable covalent bonds p50-51 Fig 4.2, 4.4. Hydrocarbons. Combinations of C and H Non-polar Hydrophobic

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carbon

Carbon

Ch 4

chemistry of life
Chemistry of Life

Organic Chemistry – study of carbon compds

  • C atoms are versatile building blocks
    • bonding properties…complexity/diversity to living matter
    • 4 stable covalent bonds
    • p50-51 Fig 4.2, 4.4
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Combinations of C and H
      • Non-polar
      • Hydrophobic
      • Store lg amts of energy
      • stable
      • very little attraction between molecules

Methane

isomers
Isomers
  • Same molecular formula but different
  • structures (shapes)
  • -different chemical properties and
  • biological functions

6 carbons

6 carbons

6 carbons

slide7
Structural Isomers – differ in arrangements of

atoms

Geometric Isomers – variation in arrangement

about a double bond

Enantiomers – variation in spatial

Arrangement around an asymmetric

carbon…molecules that are mirror

images

Thalidomide

stereoisomers

functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Parts of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions
    • give organic molecules distinctive properties

hydroxylamino

carbonylsulfhydryl

carboxylphosphate

  • Affect reactivity
    • makes hydrocarbonshydrophilic
    • increase solubility in water
why do functional groups matter
Why do Functional Groups Matter?
  • Basic structure of male & female hormones is identical
    • identical carbon skeleton
    • attachment of different functional groups
    • interact with different targets in the body
      • different effects
hydroxyl
Hydroxyl
  • –OH = alcohols
    • names typically end in -ol
      • ethanol
carbonyl
Carbonyl
  • C=O
      • if C=O at end molecule = aldehyde
      • if C=O in middle of molecule = ketone
      • Emma is awesome
carboxyl
Carboxyl
  • –COOH
      • compounds with COOH = acids
        • fatty acids
        • amino acids
amino
Amino
  • -NH2
      • compounds with NH2 = amines
        • amino acids
      • NH2 acts as base
        • ammonia picks up H+ from solution
sulfhydryl
Sulfhydryl
  • –SH
      • compounds with SH = thiols
      • SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins
phosphate
Phosphate
  • –PO4
      • connects to C through an O
      • lots of O = lots of negative charge
        • highly reactive
      • transfers energy between organic molecules
        • ATP, GTP, etc.
functional groups1
Functional Groups

Excellent Flash Tutorial

http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/biology/supplements/functional-group/

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