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CARBON PowerPoint Presentation

CARBON

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CARBON

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  1. CARBON

  2. ATOMIC NUMBER: 6 ATOMIC MASS: 12.01 ATOMIC SYMBOL: C CLASSIFICATION: NON-METALLIC COLOR: BLACK, COLORLESS FUN, FAST FACTS

  3. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

  4. HISTORY OF CARBON • THIS ELEMENT OF PREHISTORIC DISCOVERY IS FOUND THROUGHOUT NATURE • FOUND IN STARS, SUN, COMETS, ATOMSPHERES • THE ENERGY OF THE SUN AND THE STARS CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE CARBON CYCLE

  5. CARBON CAN BE FOUND IN THREE DIFFERENT FORMS: GRAPHITE DIAMONDS FULLERENE (aka BUCKYBALLS) 3 TYPES OF CARBON

  6. CARBON AS GRAPHITE

  7. GREAT GRAPHITE • LAYERED ATOMIC STRUCTURE-THERFORE PRODUCES A WEAK FORCE, AND IS EXTREMELY BREAKABLE • SOFT, SLIPPERY • MOST COMMONLY USED AS PENCIL LEAD

  8. CARBON DIAMONDS

  9. DIAMOND DATA • DIAMONDS HAVE AN ATOMIC SHAPE THAT ENSURES A TIGHT BOND • EACH CARBON ATOM IS THE SAME DISTANCE FROM ANOTHER ATOM • DIAMONDS ARE USED FOR CUTTING HARD OBJECTS AND FOR DECORATION (JEWELERY)

  10. -ALSO KNOWN AS THE ‘BUCKYBALL” -RECENTLY DISCOVERED -CONSISTS OF 60 CARBON ATOMS -C60 -STILL BEING RESEARCHED FULLERENE

  11. “BUCKYBALL” • THIS COMPLEX MOLECULE CAN BE ALTERED WITH A SINGLE ATOM TO CHANGE ITS PROPERTIES • NAMED AFTER ROBERT BUCKMINISTER FULLER • THIS MOLECULE HAS BEEN MAKING HEADLINES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY AND HOW THE DRUG INDUSTRY HAS INTEREST IN IT

  12. COSTS OF CARBON -AS OF 1990, CARBON-13 WAS COMMERICIALLY AVAILABLE AT A COST OF ABOUT $700/GRAM.

  13. CARBON CYCLE

  14. CARBON IN THE LITHOSPHERE • PLANTS ABSORB CARBON DIOXIDE FROM ATMOSPHERE, AND USE IT TO MAKE SUBSTANCES NEEDED FOR GROWTH • PHOTOSYNTHESIS INCORPORATES CARBON ATOMS FROM C02 TO SUGARS

  15. LITHOSPHERE CONT. • ANIMALS (RABBIT) EAT PLANTS AND USE CARBON TO BUILD TISSUES • OTHER ANIMALS (FOX) EAT RABBIT AND USE CARBON FOR OWN NEEDS • ANIMALS RETURN C02 INTO AIR WHEN THEY BREATHE, AND WHEN THEY DIE (BECAUSE CARBON IS RETURED TO SOIL DURING DECOMPOSITION)

  16. C02 ABSORBED INTO BODIES OF H20 SOME OF DISSOLVED C02 REMAINS IN WATER WHILE SOME IS USED BY ALGAE AND PHYTOPLANKTON THROUGH PHOTOSYNTHESIS MOLLUSCS (MUSSELS, CLAMS AND OYSTERS) MAKE SHELLS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE FROM C02 CARBON IN THE HYDROSPHERE

  17. HYDROSPHERE CONTINUED • ONCE MUSSLES DIE, SHELLS FALL TO BOTTOM WITH HARD CALCIUM CARBONATE AND BECOMES COMPRESSED, CEMENTED TOGETHER, AND EVENTUALLY FOSSILISED INTO ROCKS LIKE CHALK, LIMESTONE, AND MARBLE

  18. COMBUSTION OCCURS WHEN ORGANIC MATERIAL IS REACTED (BURNED) IN PRESENCE OF OXYGEN TO GIVE OFF C02 -DURING CONBUSTION, OXYGEN IS USED AND CABON DIOXIDE IS PRODUCED PLUS WATER CARBON IN THE ATMOSPHERE

  19. SMOKESTACK • ORGANIC MATERIAL CAN BE ANY FOSSIL FUEL SUCH AS NATURAL GAS, (METHANE) OIL, OR COAL

  20. PHOTOSYNTHESIS CARBON DIOXIDE+ WATER (h20) -> CARBOHYDRATE+ OXYGEN

  21. PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  22. RESPIRATION CARBOHYDRATE + OXYGEN-> CARBON DIOXIDE + OXYGEN

  23. CALCIUM CARBONATE CALCIUM CARBONATE-> CALCIUM OXIDE + CARBON DIOXIDE

  24. OIL AND COAL • WHEN TREES DIE, THEY FALL INTO SWAMPY MUD, WITH A LACK OF OXYGEN. THEREFORE, NORMAL DECOMPOSITION CANNOT OCCUR

  25. OIL AND COAL II • TREES BECOME FOSSILISED (COAL IS THEN FORMED) • OIL FORMS FROM TINY DEAD PLANTS TRAPPED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN OR MURKY WATER

  26. RELATE COAL TO CARBON • THE PROCESS IN WHICH OIL AND COAL ARE MADE, IS RELATIVE TO THE CARBON CYCLE BECAUSE ALL LIVING ORGANISMS AND THE PROCESSES ARE MADE UP OF CARBON

  27. RECAP OF CYCLES HYDROSPHERE, LITHOSPHERE, AND ATMOSPHERE AGAIN!

  28. CARBON CYCLE, AS EASY AS 1, 2, 3…

  29. COMPLEX CARBON CYCLE

  30. WHERE THE CYCLE BEGINS… • THE ATMOSPHERE CONTAINS CARBON DIOXIDE • THROUGH THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS, PLANTS TAKE IN CARBON, CONTINUING THE CYCLE IN THE LITHOSPHERE • WHEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXCEEDS RESPIRATION, ORGANIC MATTER BUILDS UP TO FORM COAL AND OIL DEPOSITS

  31. “The major exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the lithosphere results from photosynthesis and respiration”

  32. CARBON AND RESPIRATION • RESPIRATION IS PART OF THE PROCESS OF THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE LITHOSPHERE • ONCE ANIMALS BREAK DOWN CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANT TISSUES, THEY RELEASE IT TO THE ATMOSPHERE (THE CYCLE THEN CONINUES BACK TO THE LITHOSPHERE OR GOES TO THE HYDROSPHERE)

  33. CARBON AND RESPIRATION CONTINUED • WHEN ANIMALS RELEASE CARBON DIOXIDE TO THE ATMOSPHERE, THEY DECOMPOSE, DECAY, AND FROM POOLS OF ENERGY CALLED FOSSIL FULES (INCLUDING COAL, OIL, AND NATURAL GASES)

  34. CARBON IN THE HYDROSPHERE CARBON IS ABSORBED IN THE WATER BY PHYTOPLANKTON TO MAKE SHELL OF CALCIUM CARBONATE AND BECOME SEDIMENTS ONCE THEY DIE

  35. CARBON IN HYDROSPHERE CONT. • CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE IS CONTROLLED BY THE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE, CIRCULATING CURRENTS, AND THE BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF PHYTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION

  36. MORE CARBON IN HYDROSPHERE • CARBON DIOXIDE CAN DISSOVLE EASILY AND THE AMOUNT THAT THE OCEAN CAN HOLD DEPENDS ON THE OCEAN TEMPERATURE AND HOW MUCH CARBON IS ALREADY IN THE OCEAN • WHEN THE OCEAN IN COLD, MORE CARBON IS ARBORBED, AND WHEN THE TEMP. IS WARM, CO2 IS RELEASED TO THE SURFACE

  37. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT CARBON DIOXIDE CONTRIBUTES

  38. KEEPS ALL EARHT’S HEAT FROM ESCAPING TO THE OUTER ATMOPSHERE CARBON RESPONSIBLE FOR GREENHOUSE GASES AND 55% OF THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT CARBON DIOXIDE IS TRANSPARENT TO LIGHT BUT OPAQUE TO HEAT RAYS, THEREFORE THE ATMOSPHERE RETARDS THE RAIATION OF HEAT FROM THE EARTH BACK INTO SPACE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

  39. GREENHOUSE EFFECT

  40. BIBLIOGRAPHY • PICTURE RESOURCES: • www.pmel.noaa.gov/ co2/gif/globcar.png • www.safeclimate.net/. ../carboncycle.php • geosun1.sjsu.edu/ ~dreed/105/exped7/4.html • www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/ carbon/efcarbon.html • www.webelements.com/.../ text/C/xtal.html • www.netl.doe.gov/.../ carbon-flux-diagram • www.mkdandj.com/ loosediamonds/

  41. CONTINUED • 13 September 2004. http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/why.htm. • 13 September 2004. www.co2science.org/ • 13 September 2004. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/library/carboncycle • 13 September 2004. www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/306carbon.html • 17 September 2004. www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/modules/carbon/carbon1.html • 17 September 2004. pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/6.html

  42. EVEN MORE!!!!!!! • 17 September 2004. www.environment.allinfoabout.com/carbon.html • 19 September 2004. www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/climate/gccarbon1.html