The Great War Consumes Europe Take out your homework, notebook, & text
Warm-Up Activity • For each image you see, write the cause of WW1 that is represented. • If you’re stumped, turn to your partner and ask for some help!
MANIAC!!!! • M • A • N • I • A • C ilitarism lliances ationalism mperialism ssassination risis in the Balkans
WWI—A Review… • Nationalism spurs competition among European nations • Imperialism deepens national rivalries • Militarism leads to large standing armies • A weakening Ottoman Empire leads to a crisis in the Balkans • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand leads to the beginning of World War I, as Austria declares war on Serbia • Members of the Triple Entente join the Allies; members of the Triple Alliance join the Central Powers; additionally, many colonial subjects were recruited to serve
Central vs. Allied • Look at your maps from yesterday’s class • Who were the primary Central Powers? • Who were the primary Allied Powers? • Central: Germany and Austria-Hungary • Allied: Great Britain, France, Russia
Lots of WW1 players… • Why did Great Britain enter the war? • Germany invaded Belgium to get to France • Why did Austria go to war against Serbia? • Assassination and encouragement by Germany • Why did Germany declare war on Russia? • Russians had mobilized troops in order to protect Serbians after Austrian declaration of war
Germany’s Plan • Schlieffen plan • German army would race West to defeat France and then return to fight Russia in the East • German felt that Russia’s lack of railroads would limit their ability to mobilize • Worked brilliantly at first; swept through Belgium and into France • French defeated Germans at the Battle of the Marne; defeated the Schlieffen plan but failure to capture new ground—Stalemate • Quick victory in the West no longer seemed possible • Russia invaded Germany; Germany would have to fight a long war on 2 fronts
War on the Western Front • Characterized by trench warfare • Pure misery for soldiers—slept, washed, ate, dreamed in mud; long, anxious wait periods, limited medical treatment available • Trenches swarmed with rats, infections, diseases, spoiled food • Many of the 40 million casualties of WW1 died as a result of trench warfare • No man’s land refers to the vast space between enemy trenches, often full of mud and destruction • Despite major battles and horrific casualties, neither side advances on the Western Front
Trench Warfare Simulation • Divide class into Central and Allied powers • Clear out middle section of class • Move all bookbags in middle section of class • Each student will receive 3 pieces of scrap paper—roll up into a ball to use for ammunition • Students wage battle—this should demonstrate the futility of trench warfare and dangers of going “over the top” • Any student hit by ammunition is to remain still in place where they got hit
Medical Conditions • For those injured during trench stimulation…understand that medical services were not as advanced at this time; life-saving medicines, procedures, antibiotics hadn’t been discovered • Minor injuries can kill you! Very likely that infection could cause your body to decay • Germans recorded that 23% of arm wounds resulted in death • Soldiers suffered from many diseases and parasites caused by unsanitary living conditions • Many died due to the cold winter weather; temperature in a trench could fall below freezing • Rare to bury a body; most left in no man’s land
Reflection Questions • What did that experience feel like? • Imagine the weapons you were throwing were real, or that you had been in the trenches for two weeks. What would this experience have been like then? • Soldiers were often in the trenches for weeks, much of that time spent on edge as they waited for an attack. How do you imagine this uncertainty affected them?
Letters from the Western Front • To further our understanding of life for a soldier during WW1, lets take a look at some letters… • Get ready to discuss
War on the Eastern Front • Russians and Serbs battle Germans, Austrians, and Turks along the Eastern Front • Without modern technology, the Russian army was continually short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, and blankets; hangs on through sheer strength of its numbers • Since Russia maintains troops, Germany cannot send its full fighting force to the West
Technology during WW1 • You and your group will play teacher • Explore your weapon and teach its impact to the class • All students must complete their charts and be ready to share with the class • Group 1-Chase, Lauren, Imran, Ally (machine guns) • 2-Tim, Ashley S., TJ, Jackie (poison gas) • 3-Luke, Alyssa, Tyler, Kelly (tanks) • 4-Ashley K., Jennie, Keith(airplanes) • 5-John, Kyle, Julie, Jill (submarines)
Why would the US get involved in this war? • Germany intensified submarine warfare • 1917 Germany announced that their subs would sink without warning any ship in the waters around Britain • This policy was known as unrestricted submarine warfare • Germany then sank 3 American ships • Then the British intercepted the Zimmermann note • telegram from Germany’s foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico; Germany would help Mexico reconquer land it had lost to the US if Mexico would ally itself with Germany • US declares war and joins Allies • Us had always been sympathetic with Allies—major trading partners, special bond with Britain, similar democratic institutions
Total war • WW1 soon became a total war; countries devoted all resources to war effort • Entire force of government dedicated to winning conflict • Gov control of economy-told factories what to produce and how much; unemployment nearly disappeared • Due to nature of total war, many goods were in short supplyrationing; people could buy only small amounts of certain items that were also needed for war effort (from butter to shoe leather) • Censorship of news—did not want to turn people against war • Use of propaganda—one-sided information intended to persuade public, keep up morale and support for the war
Exit Ticket • What prompted the US to enter the war? • What is total war? • Why did governments utilize propaganda during the war?
The War comes to a close • Russia withdraws from war, but the US troops give Allies the edge • Central Powers Crumble, war ends 1918 • Time had come to forge a peace agreement
Chapter 13 Section 4 • What was Wilson’s plan for peace? What were his general goals for the postwar world? Explain Wilson’s 14 points. • Why did the Allies dictate a harsh peace? • What was the League of Nations • Why was the peace after WW1 built on quicksand? • What was the lost generation?
Wilson’s Plan for Peace • End to secret treaties • Free trade • Freedom of the seas • Reduced national armies and navies • Self determination-allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wish to live under • Hope for an organization that could peacefully negotiate solutions to world problems
Bad, Bad Germany • Treaty of Versailles punished Germany—restricted military, war making capability • Placed sole responsibility of war on Germany • Was this right or wrong? • Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies
Peace Built On Quicksand • US rejected treaty • Believed that the US best hope for peace was to stay out of European affairs • Lacking US support, League didn’t have much power
Lost Generation • Enormous suffering and pointlessness of the war • Devastating losses • About 40 million casualties • 383 A Voice From the Past