The Great War By: Heather Henderson and Shelly Smith
Military draft The significances of conscriptions was to increase the size of the army. Between 1890 and 1914 the European armies doubled in size. The Russian armies had grown to be the largest with 1.3 million men. The French and German armies had approximately 900,000. The British, Italian, and Austro-Hungarian armies were between 250,000 and 500,000. Conscription Doughboys First by Frank Schoonover1
Mobilization • The process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war. • 1914 →considered an act of war. WWI mobilization 2 German soldiers celebrating start of war 1
Archduke Francis Ferdinand • June 28, 1914 →Heir to the throne. • Conspirators plan to kill Ferdinand, along with his wife Sophia. They began throwing bombs at his car, but it bounced off and exploded into another car. Gavrilo Princip succeeded in shooting both Ferdinand and his wife. • Austria declared war on Serbia, because of his death. Archduke Francis Ferdinand 1 Archduke Francis Ferdinand 2
Emperor William II • Emperor of Germany • Gave the “blank check” saying that Austria-Hungary had Germany’s “full support” even if “matters went to the length of war between Austria-Hungary and Russia” • “Till the world comes to an end the ultimate decision will rest with the sword.” -Emperor William II William II1 William II with his first wife Augusta Viktoria2 ← William II3
Czars Nicholas II • July 28: He order partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria-Hungary • July 29: He ordered full mobilization of the Russian army, knowing that they considered this an act of war. Czars Nicholas II 1 A portrait of Nicholas II,Painted by V.A. Serov, 1900. 2
Triple Entente & Triple Alliance Blue: Triple Entente Red: Triple AllianceYellow: Neutral Countries 1
Triple Alliance • Created in 1882 • Formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy • Crises tested these alliances; which left European states angry at each other and eager for revenge. 1
Triple Entente • Created in 1907 • Formed by France, Great Britain, and Russia • Crises tested these alliances; which left European states angry at each other and eager for revenge. 1
Militarism • Aggressive preparation for war • Armies grew along with the influence of military leaders • Leaders had plans for quickly mobilizing millions of men and enormous amount of supplies in the event of war. (conscription)
What ethnic groups were left without nations in Europe before 1914? • Slavic minorities in the Balkans and the Hapsburg Empire dreamed of creating their own national states • The Irish in the British Empire wanted to create their own national states • The poles in the Russian Empire also had dreams of creating their own national states.
How did the creation of military plans help draw the nations of Europe into World War I? • The Germans had a military plan; the Schlieffen plan • Called a two front war with France and Russia • The plan was that Germany would conduct a small holding action against Russian while most of the German army would carry out a rapid invasion of France. After the defeat of France, they would move east against Russia • Under the Schlieffen plan, Germany declared war on France on August 3 • On August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany
Which decisions made by European leaders in 1914 lead directly to the outbreak of war? • June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. The Austrian-Hungarian government didn’t know if the Serbian government was involved with his assassination, but the Austrian foreign minister saw it as an opportunity to “render Serbian innocuous once and for all by a display of force.” On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. • Austrian leaders sought backup from Germany were Emperor William II gave Austria-Hungary, Germanys “full support.” • On July 28, Czar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army. Then on July 29, Czars ordered full mobilization of the Russian army, which was considered an act of war. • The Schlieffen plan was put into play on August 3, when Germany declared war on France.
What were the chief domestic problems confronting European nations before 1914? • Rivalries of colonies and trade grew during an age of frenzied nationalism and imperialist expansion. • Growth of nationalism: • Not all ethnic groups became nations • Socialist were increasingly inclined to use strikes to achieve their goals. • There were labor strife and class divisions. • Resulted in the encouragement of war in 1914.
Propaganda • Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause. • Government propaganda started national hatred before the war.
Trench Warfare • Fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire • The Germans and the French could not dislodge each other from the trenches, which made them stay in the same position for 4 years. French soldiers building a trench 1
War of Attrition • A war based on wearing the other side down by contrast attacks and heavy losses. • Ex.: One side would order commands starting with artillery, to shock the enemy. Then, they would come out of their trenches with bayonets • The attacks rarely hurt because as they came out of the trench, they had a chance of being fired at by enemy machine guns.
Total War • A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields. • Men had to be organized and supplies had to be manufactured and purchased for years of combat; increase of government powers→ manipulated public opinion to keep war effort going. 1
Planned Economies • System directed by government agencies • Governments set up • Price, wage, and rent controls • Rationed food supplies and materials • Regulated imports and exports • Took over transportation systems
Lawrence of Arabia • British officer • Real name: T. E. Lawrence • 1917- urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman over lords. • The British under minded Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula; Lawrence of Arabia aided the Arabian nationalists. Lawrence of Arabia 1
Admiral Holtzendorff • A German admiral for the submarines • Real name: Henning Von Holtzendorff • Assured the emperor, “I give your majesty my word as an officer that not one American will land on the continent.” • He decided that the Germans should return to unrestricted submarine warfare which brought the US into war in April 1917. 1
Battle of the Marne • September 6-10 • To stop the Germans, French military leaders loaded two thousand Parisian taxicabs with fresh troops and sent them to the front line. Battle of the Marne begins 1
Battle of Tannenberg & Battle of Masurian Lakes • August 30 & September 15 • Battle of Tannenberg led by Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg • Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated • The Russians were no longer a threat to German territory Generals Ludendorff and von Hindenburg with Kaiser Wilhelm II 1
Battle of Verdun • 1916; in France • German General Erich von Falkenhayn developed a plan to attack Verdun; considered by many military historians as the “greatest” and most demanding battle in history. • Men would hide in trenches and when they came out they attacked the enemy with bayonets. • Seven hundred men lost their lives over a few miles of land • “war of attrition” Underground entrance 1 Overview of battle 2 Dead French soldiers in trench 3
Battle of Gallipoli • April 1915 • The Allies tried to open a Balkan front by landing troops in Gallipoli • They entered the side of the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman) and were forced to withdraw. Turkish soldiers defending Gallipoli 2 Gallipoli Front 1 ANZAC troops attack enemy positions at Gallipoli 3
Lusitania • British ship • Departed from Britain on May 1, 1915 and six days later ( May 7, 1915 @ 2:10 p.m.) was sunk by Walther Schwieger, a German commander who fired a torpedo 750 yards away. • May 7, 1915 : Sunk by German forces • 1,100 civilian casualties (over 100 Americans) • “floating palace” • Britain set up a blockade of Germany; Germany set up a blockade of Britain • German authorities saw Lusitania as a threat • Germany accused the British as using Lusitania to carry ammunition and other war supplies across the Atlantic Newspaper ad run by German Embassy before Lusitania sailed 1 Lusitania 2
Zimmerman Telegram • Written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman • It was a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the U.S. • Threats contained in the telegram helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917. Detail of the Zimmermann Telegram 1
Battle at the Somme • British and French armies joined at the Somme River • British attacked the German defensive line on July 1, 1916 • First day of the battle: 21,000 British soldiers were killed • Was the single worst day in death and casualties in British military history • 20,000 out of 100,000 troops were killed and over 40,000 were wounded. Overview of Battle 2 Explosions near the Somme 1
Battle at Ypres • First Battle: 1914 • Second Battle: 1915 • Third Battle: 1917 • June 7, 1917: Set off bombs on German lines that were dug in mines over the past eighteen months. • General Douglas Haig’s plan failed because when the bombs fired the land was turned into “Quicksand” and all men, animals and equipment sank into the ground. Overview of Battle 2 Post-war Ypres1
Why did WWI require total warfare? • So the government could have control over the people and resources • Also so that the people could not go against the government • Before total warfare, there was the trench warfare were they
What methods did governments use to create enthusiasm for war, and counter opposition to the war at home? • Made active use of Propaganda • Newspapers were censored and sometimes their publications were suspended • The French exaggerated German atrocities in Belgium and found that their citizens were only too willing to believe these accounts.
Which government powers increased during the war? • Drafted tens of millions of young men • PLANNED ECONIMIES: Set up price, wage, and rent controls; rationed food supplies and materials; regulated imports and exports; took over transportation.
How did war affect women’s rights, and the role of women in society? • Women were asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them before. • Chimney sweeps • Truck drivers • Farm labors • Factory workers in heavy industry • At the end of the war government quickly removed women from the jobs. • 1919: 350,00 unemployed women • Gained the right to vote in Germany, Austria, and the United States Woman in gas mask factory 1
Which events brought the US into the war? • The naval war between Germany and Great Britain. • The U.S. protested the use of unrestricted submarine warfare. • Germany brought back the use of unrestricted submarine warfare which brought the U.S. into war. (April 1914) U.S. enters WWI 1
How did soldiers try to make life in the trenches bearable? • Produced humor magazines to help pass the time.
Soviets • Councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers • Soviets of Petrograd had been formed in March 1917. • Soviet sprang up in; army units, factory towns, and rural areas • Were largely made up of socialist who represented the more radical interest of the lower classes. An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 1
War Communism • Was used to insure regular supplies for the Red Army • Meant government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from most peasants, and the centralization of state administration under communist control.
Grigori Rasputin • An uneducated Serbian peasant who claimed to be a holy man • Alexandra believed that Rasputin was holy because he alone was able to stop her son Alexis from bleeding • Was first consulted by Alexandra when making the most important decision. She called him, “he beloved, never-to-be-forgotten teacher, savior, and mentor.” • Rasputin was made an important power behind the throne • Didn’t hesitate to interfere with government affairs • Was assassinated in December 1916 • It wasn’t easy to kill a man with such incredible strength: They shot him three times and then tied him up and threw him into the Neva River. He drowned by then untied the knots underwater before he died. Grigori Rasputin 1
Alexander Kerensky • Headed the provisional government • Decided to carry on the war to preserve Russia’s honor 1
Czar Nicholas II • Relied on the Army and bureaucracy to hold up his regime. • Lost support of the Army and stepped down from the battlefield on March 15, 1917 – ending the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty.
Bolsheviks • Began as a small fraction of a Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats • Came under the leadership of V. I. Lenin • Under Lenin’s directions, the Bolsheviks became a party dedicated to violent revolution. Reflected the discontent of people and promised an end to the war, the redistribution, of all land to the peasants, the transfer of factories and industries from capitalist to committees of workers, and the transfer of the government power from the provisional government to the soviets • Three simple slogans that summed up the Bolshevik program: • “Land, Peace, and Bread” • “Workers control of government” • “All power to the soviets” • At the end of October, they made up a slight majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets: the number of party members had grown from 50,000 to 240,000 • November 6, Bolsheviks forces seized the Winter Palace • Renamed themselves the communists • Many people opposed the new Bolshevik and were concerned about the communist takeover • Between 1918 and 1921, were forced to fight on many fronts against opponents, the anti-communist forces. • 1921, communist regain control over the independent nationalist governments in Georgia, Russian Armenian, and Azerbaijan • Were inspired by their vision of a new socialist order and determination that comes from revolutionary zeal and convictions. • Were able to translate their revolutionary faith into practical instruments of power: • War communism • Revolutionary terror • Appealed to the powerful force of Russian patriotism\ • In 1992, were in total command of Russia • Had transformed Russia into a centralized state dominated by a single party Study1 under arms 2 Work3
Lenin • Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov, known to the world as V. I. Lenin • Lead the Bolsheviks • Believed that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system. • Spent most of his time abroad between 1900 and 1917 • 1917 : Saw an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to seize power • In April 1917, he was shipped to Russia by the German military leaders, hoping to create disorder in Russia; His arrival opened a new stage of Russian revolution • Lenin maintained that the Soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were ready made instruments of power • He believed that the Bolsheviks should work towards gaining control of these groups and then used them to overthrow the provisional government • Turned over the power of the provisional government to the Congress of Soviets; The real power was passed to a Council of People's Commissars, headed by Lenin • Lenin promised peace which meant that a humiliating loss of much Russian territory • On March 3, 1918 Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic Provinces Vladimir Ilyich 1 Lenin speaks 2
Trotsky • A Commissar of war • Reinstated the draft and insisted on rigid discipline • Executed soldiers on the spot who deserted or refused to obey orders Trotsky 1
Petrograd • Formerly St. Petersburg • Had started bread rationing in Petrograd after the price of bread went up • Many strikes lead by the working class women were held in the capital of Petrograd • On March 8, about 10,000 women marched through the city demanding “Peace and bread” and “down with autocracy” The Eastern Front 1
Ukraine • Was given up by Lenin when he signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany
Siberia • Gave the first serious threats to the communists; an anti-communist force attacked westward and advance almost to the Volga River Siberia 1
Brest Litovsk • The Treaty of Brest Litovsk • Signed by Lenin with Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic province • The spread of socialist revolution throughout Europe made the Treaty largely irrelevant 1 2