New England and the Middle Colonies Main Idea – A diverse economy in New England & Middle Colonies drives the development of cities.
Economy of the Middle Colonies • Cash Crop = Wheat • Wheat Boom • Population increases in Europe in early 1700s • More people come to America • Wheat farmers get wealthier • Leads to rise of entrepreneurs & capitalists • Major cities develop where the rivers empty into the ocean – WHY?
Who is Who? • Wealthy Wheat Farmers • Wheat Boom leads to entrepreneurs and capitalists • Subsistence Farmers (+) • Grew a bit more than they needed • Tenant Farmers • Work someone else’s land
A Diverse Economy • No one major cash crop • Lumber • Ships & Furniture • Whaling • Perfume • Lamp Oil • Fishing • Fur
New England Society • Small town vs. Plantation • Town Meetings • Birthplace of the idea of Representative Government in New World
Urban Social Structure Merchants Artisans Unskilled Laborers Indentured Servant - Not many Slaves – relatively few
The Imperial System Main Idea – England adopts policies to make trade with the American colonies more profitable
Mercantilism Mercantilism = Economic system where the mother country establishes colonies where there are raw materials. They take raw materials from colonies, manufacture products, then sell them to the colonies
The Navigation Acts • Navigation Act 1660 • All goods imported / exported must go on English ships • Certain raw materials can only be sold to England (tobacco, lumber, indigo, others) • Staple Act 1663 • All imports to colonies must pass through England • Purpose: control trade in colonies and increase profits for England
Colonial Response • Massachusetts ignores Acts • Smuggling • Colonies don’t need to obey laws not in their best interests • King James II revokes colonial charters • Appoints Royal Governor • Dominion of New England • Land Titles worthless • Only Anglican marriages recognized • Churches/Meetinghouses used for Anglicans
John Locke • English philosopher • Ruler’s power comes from the people • All people have natural rights • Life • Liberty • Property • If a government violates a people’s rights, they can over throw the government
English Bill of Rights • No absolute power • Parliament must approve taxes and use of army • Freedom of speech in Parliament • Impartial Jury