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The New England Colonies

The New England Colonies

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The New England Colonies

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  1. The New England Colonies PLYMOUTH/NEW ENGLAND

  2. New England Colonies, 1650

  3. Reforming England in America • Pilgrims • Separatists who refused to worship in the Church of England • 1620—Plymouth founded • Mayflower Compact • Governor William Bradford andSquanto ensured colony survived • 1691—absorbed into Massachusetts Bay

  4. “The Great Migration” • 1630—John Winthrop led Puritan group to Massachusetts with charter giving them power to make decisions without direction from England • Declared they would form a “city upon a hill”

  5. “A City upon a Hill”: Settlement • 1630-1640—16,000 immigrated • Settlers usually came as family units • Area settled was generally healthy • Puritans’ view of their colony: • Success as part of covenant with God • A “beacon of righteousness” to the world • Church attendance required, but membership not automatic

  6. “A City on a Hill”: Politics • Public confession and execution of criminals • Government by elected representatives responsible to God • All adult male church members could vote • Ministers had no formal role and were prohibited from holding office • Town was center of Puritan life

  7. Limits of Religious Dissent: Roger Williams • Extreme separatist • Questioned validity of colony’s charter • Advocated toleration of religious beliefs, while Puritans opposed religious dissent • Expelled to Rhode Island, 1636

  8. Limits of Religious Dissent:Anne Hutchinson • Claimed direct divine inspiration by the Holy Spirit • Suggested Puritan ministers were no better than those of Church of England • Called established church into question • Banished to Rhode Island in 1637

  9. Immigrant Families and New Social Order • Huge population growth caused by high life expectancy • Multigenerational families strengthened social stability • Education valued and provided by the family

  10. Social Hierarchy in New England • Absence of a rich elite class necessitated creation of new social order • Much more equal society than Chesapeake • Only moderate disparities of wealth

  11. King Philip’s War • 1675—Metacomet led alliance against colonists • Colonists struggled to unite, to defeat Indians • Deaths totaled 1000+ Indians and colonists • Plymouth Colony lost 8% of its adult male population • By the end of the war, one-third of New England's approximately 100 towns had been burned and abandoned