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Motivation: Background and Theories

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  1. Motivation:Background and Theories Organizations:Behavior, Structure, Processes Chapter 5 Source:Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., Donnelly, Jr. J. H. & Konopaske, R. (2012), OrganizationsBehavior, Structure, Processes (14th edition). New York: McGraw Hill.

  2. Learning Objectives • Define motivation in practical terms that would be meaningful to managers in organizations • Compare the content and process explanations and theories of motivation • Describe how equity theory explains employees’ reactions to pay and compensation decisions • Discuss why individual needs and preferences change over the course of a career • Explain the motivational force for a behavior, action, or task as a function of three distinct perceptions made by an individual

  3. Motivation Puzzle • Managers must excel at addressing the needs and goals of employees • No one motivational approach works for all • Individuals differ in… • Their desired rewards • How they attempt to satisfy those needs • How they view the fairness of rewards • Their view of the work environment

  4. Key Employee Differences • Veterans (born 1922-45) • Believe in hard work, dedication, sacrifice, and respect for authority • Have a great deal or organizational knowledge and remain influential • Boomers (born 1946-64) • Characterized by optimism, teamwork, healthy lifestyles, personal gratification • Will “go the extra mile” to get the job done • Enjoy their careers

  5. Key Employee Differences • Gen Xers (born 1965-76) • Understands the importance of diversity, work-life balance, self-reliance, fun, and informality • More cynical than other generations • Their “it’s only a job” attitude puts them in direct conflict with Boomers

  6. Key Employee Differences • Gen Yers (born 1977-97) • Nexters, Internet Gen, or Echo Boomers • Workplace preferences • A fair boss • Belief in the company • Workplace safety • Training and learning opportunities • Flexible work schedules • Constructive feedback • Timely and fair reward systems

  7. Motivation • Theorists have different interpretations and place emphasis on different factors • Motivation is related to behavior and performance • Goal-directedness is involved • It results from events and processes, whether internal or external • Research is still evolving • Many aspects of human motivation remain unexplained

  8. Motivation Motivation is the result of forces acting on an employee that initiate and direct behavior

  9. Motivation • Motivated employees • Look for the best way to do their job • Produce high-quality products or services • Are more likely to be productive • Want to work and become part of the team • Help, support, and encourage coworkers • Are self-confident and decisive

  10. Motivation Starting Point • Individuals • All have a deficiency or lack something at a particular point in time • Are more susceptible to motivational efforts when in need • Deficiencies may be • Physiological • Psychological • Sociological

  11. The Motivational Process: An Initial Model

  12. Motivation Theories • Content Motivation Theories • Focuses on factors within a person that energize, direct, sustain, stop behavior • These factors can only be inferred • Process Motivation Theories • Describe, explain, and analyze how behavior is energized, directed, sustained, and stopped

  13. Managerial Perspective of Content and Process Theories of Motivation

  14. Theory Founders • Content theory founders • Maslow…need hierarchy • Alderfer…ERG theory • Herzberg…two-factor theory • McClelland…learned needs • Process theory founders • Vroom…expectancy of choices • Adams…equity • Skinner…reinforcement • Locke…goal-setting

  15. Application of Theories • Content theory • Managers must be aware of differences in needs, desires, and goals because each individual is unique • Process theory • Managers must understand the process of motivation and how individuals make choices based on performances, rewards, and accomplishments

  16. Content Theories of Motivation • Human needs, as defined by Maslow’s need hierarchy • Physiological • Safety and security • Belongingness, social, and love • Esteem • Self-actualization

  17. Content Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s need hierarchy assumes • A person attempts to satisfy basic needs before trying to satisfy upper-level needs • Lower-level needs must be satisfied before a higher-level need begins to control a person’s behavior • A satisfied need ceases to motivate

  18. Content Theories of Motivation • Alderfer proposes a hierarchy involving three sets of needs • Existence… satisfied by such things as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions • Relatedness… satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships • Growth… satisfied by making creative or productive contributions

  19. ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, Importance, and Satisfaction of Needs

  20. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory • Extrinsic factors • Pay, status, and working conditions • Known as dissatisfiers or hygiene factors • Intrinsic factors • Achievement, increased responsibility, recognition • Known as satisfiers or motivators

  21. Traditional and Herzberg Views ofSatisfaction– Dissatisfaction

  22. Learned Needs Theory • A person with a strong need will use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need • Needs are learned from the culture of a society

  23. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory • Achievement (n Ach) • High n Ach persons prefer moderate goals they think they can achieve • Affiliation (n Aff) • High n Aff persons prefer immediate and reliable performance feedback • Power (n Pow) • High n Ach persons like to be responsible for solving problems

  24. Measuring n Ach Needs • Needs are measured with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • A person is shown a picture and asked to write a story about it • People tend to write stories that reflect their dominant needs

  25. A Graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation

  26. Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation

  27. Expectancy Theory A person who is faced with a set of first-level outcomes will select one based on • The strength (valence) of the desire to achieve a second-level state • The perception of the relationship between first- and second-level outcomes

  28. Expectancy Theory (Vroom) • A process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activity • Most behaviors are under a person’s voluntary control and are consequently motivated • When faced with a set of first-level outcomes • Employees select outcomes based on how the choice relates to second-level outcomes

  29. Expectancy Theory Terminology • First- and second-level outcomes • The result of behaviors • Associated with doing the job itself • First-level outcomes include productivity, absenteeism, turnover, quality • Second-level outcomes are those events (rewards or punishments) that the first-level outcomes are likely to produce

  30. Expectancy Theory Terminology • Instrumentality • An individual’s perception that first-level outcomes are associated with second-level outcomes • Valence • The strength of a person’s preference for a particular outcome • Applies to first- and second-level outcomes • Expectancy • Perceived likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome • Subjective probability

  31. Principles of Expectancy Theory V1 = S(V2 x I) • Valence associated with first-level outcomes is the sum of the multiplication of the valences (V2) attached to all second-level outcomes with their respective instrumentalities (I) M = f(V1 x E) • Motivation is a multiplicative function of the valence for each first-level outcome (V1) and the perceived expectancy (E) that a given behavior will be followed by a particular first-level outcome P = f(M x A) • Performance is considered a multiplicative function of motivation (f) and ability

  32. Application of Expectancy Theory: Joan’s Situation

  33. Expectancy Theory • Managers should • Focus on employee expectations for success • Actively determine which second-level outcomes are important to employees • Link desired second-level outcomes to the organization’s performance goals

  34. Equity Theory Employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar works situations

  35. Equity Theory • Terms • Person: the individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived • Comparison other: any individual(s) or group used as a referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes • Inputs: the individual characteristics brought by Person to the job • Outcomes: what Person received from the job

  36. Equity Theory

  37. Jeff’s Concept of Equity Theory:An Application

  38. Restoring Equity • Change the inputs or outcomes of the reference person • Change your inputs or outcomes • Change the reference person • Change the situation