Chapter Objectives • Define the motivation process • Three early theories of motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Theory X and Y • Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene • Six Theories of Motivation • Three Needs Theory • Goal-Setting Theory • Reinforcement Theory • Designing Motivating Jobs • Equity Theory • Expectancy Theory • Current Issues in Motivating Employees
The Motivation Process Un- satisfied need Reduction of tension Search behavior Satisfied need Tension Drives
Individual and Organizational Goals… • Should match!
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Little Ambition Theory X Workers Dislike Work Avoid Responsibility Self-Directed Theory Y Workers Enjoy Work Accept Responsibility
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Motivators Hygiene Factors • Achievement • Recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth • Supervision • Company policy • Relationship with • supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers • Personal life • Relationship with • subordinates • Status • Security Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely dissatisfied
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivators Hygiene Factors Satisfaction No Satisfaction No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
The Three Needs Theory Achievement (aAch) Affiliation (nAff) Power (nPow)
What Motivates You? • I try very hard to improve on my past performance at work. • I enjoy competition and winning. • I often find myself talking to those around me about nonwork matters • I enjoy a diffficult challenge • I enjoy being in charge • I want to be liked by others • I want to know how I am progressing as I complete tasks • I confront people who do things I disagree with • I tend to build close relationships with co-workers • I enjoy setting and achieving realistic goals • I enjoy influencing other people to get my way • I enjoy belonging to groups and organizations • I enoy the satisfaction of completing a difficult task • I often work to gain more control over the events around me • I enjoy working with others more than working alone
What Motivates Me? Results • 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 – nAch • 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 – nPow • 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 - nAff
Goal-Setting Theory • Specific • Difficult but reachable • Two factors that influence: • Goal commitment • Go public • Internal locus of control • Self-set • Self-efficacy
Reinforcement Theory Rewards Behavior Behavior No Rewards Punishment
Designing Motivating Jobs Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Scope Depth Number of Tasks Employee Control Frequency of Tasks Feedback
Guidelines for Job Redesign Core Job Dimensions Suggested Action Skill variety Combining tasks Task identity Forming natural work units Task significance Establishing client relationships Autonomy Vertical loading Feedback Opening feedback channels
Equity Theory 1) Compute your input/output ratio 2) Compare your ratio to others’ ratio
Video Cases • Kingston Technologies • E&Y • Take notes as you watch the videos on what motivated the people interviewed. • What interested or struck you about the things that motivated people? Which do you resonate with? • Which motivation theories did you see evidence of?
How to Motivate Martin? Martin is an advertising copywriter who works in the recorded music division of Mediaplex's marketing department. Martin is a hard worker and his work performance has been very good. His most recent work project involves writing direct mail letters to current and potential customers regarding new music (both live and recorded) being marketed by Mediaplex. He also sends coupons for discounts on the new music along with the direct mail letters. Recently, however, he seems to have lost interest in his work. The number of letters and coupons he mails out in a week is falling. As manager of the recorded music marketing division, you have dealt with other instances of declining employee work productivity by using different incentives to motivate employees such as time off, verbal recognition, flexible hours, and free entertainment passes to Mediaplex events. You try these with Martin, but he does not respond. His work productivity continues to be below expectations. Following Mediaplex policy, you also have kept written documentation of your actions to improve this situation. What would you do next? (Keep in mind the culture of Mediaplex and remember that the marketing department is one of the most aggressive and flexible units in the company).
Expectancy Theory 1) How hard do I have to work? 2) What are the chances of reaching the goal? 3) How attractive is the goal?
Current Motivational Issues Workforce Diversity Pay-for-Performance Open-Book Management Employee Stock Ownership The New Workforce