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Motivation and Emotion

Motivation and Emotion. Motivational Theories and Concepts. Motives – needs, wants, desires leading to goal-directed behavior Drive theories – seeking homeostasis Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success

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Motivation and Emotion

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  1. Motivation and Emotion

  2. Motivational Theories and Concepts • Motives – needs, wants, desires leading to goal-directed behavior • Drive theories – seeking homeostasis • Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli • Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success • Maslow’s Hierarchy – “to become more!” • Cognitive – intrinsic vs. extrinsic “achievement motive”… “affiliation motive”

  3. Motivation • Motivation • a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior • Instinct • complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

  4. Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst) Motivation • Drive-Reduction Theory • the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

  5. Motivation • Homeostasis • tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state • regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level • Incentive • a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

  6. The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Biological Factors • Brain regulation • Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus • Paraventricular nucleus • Glucose and digestive regulation • Glucostatic theory • Hormonal regulation • Insulin and leptin

  7. The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Environmental Factors • Learned preferences and habits • Exposure • When, as well as what • Food-related cues • Appearance, odor, effort required • Stress • Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating

  8. Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity • Evolutionary explanations • Genetic predisposition • Body Mass Index and adoption study • The concept of set point/settling point • Dietary restraint

  9. Affiliation and Achievement Motivation • Affiliation motive = need for social bonds • Devote more time to interpersonal activities • Worry more about acceptance • Achievement motive = need to excel • Work harder and more persistently • Delay gratification • Pursue competitive careers • Situational influences on achievement motives • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

  10. Sexual Motivation and Behavior: Determining Desire • Hormonal regulation • Estrogens • Androgens • Testosterone • Pheromones • Synchronized menstrual cycles • Aphrodisiacs • Erotic materials • Attraction to a Partner • The Coolidge effect • Evolutionary factors

  11. Parental Investment

  12. Sex on our minds!

  13. Show me the $!

  14. The Human Sexual Response • Alfred Kinsey 1948 Sexual Behavior in the Human Male • Masters and Johnson – 1966 • Stages: • Excitement • Plateau • Orgasm • Resolution

  15. The Mystery of Sexual Orientation • Heterosexual – Bisexual – Homosexual • A continuum • Theories explaining homosexuality • Environmental • Biological • Interactionist

  16. “Me? Attracted to the same sex?”

  17. Hmmm?

  18. Homosexuality: Nature, Nurture or both?

  19. What about porn, sex addiction, sexual disorders, sex crimes? • The mind can associate anything with sex (fetishes). • Objects? Actions? Identities? • Answers in the perspectives? • What would the following say? • Freud (Psychodynamic) • Watson/Bandura (Behavioral) • Simon/Chomsky (Cognitive) • Maslow/Rogers (Humanistic) • Buss (Evolutionary) • Weisel (Biological)

  20. Sex and advertising… • What do these next slides say about women? Men?

  21. From “Toddlers & Tiaras”

  22. Is this a glimpse of the future?

  23. Nature of Love • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love: Love is made up of intimacy, passion, and commitment • Intimacy: Affection, sharing, support, and communication in a relationship • Passion: High levels of physical arousal in a relationship, especially sexual • Commitment: Decision to love and stay with another person

  24. Sternberg’s triangular theory of love.

  25. Types of Love • Liking: Intimacy without passion or commitment • Romantic Love: Intimacy plus passion • Fatuous Love: Passion with commitment, but lacking intimacy • Infatuation: Passion without commitment or intimacy

  26. More Types of Love • Companionate Love: Intimacy and commitment without passion • Empty Love: Commitment without intimacy or passion • Consummate Love: Passion, intimacy, and commitment

  27. What are your LOVE indicators? Each person will identify one indicator of LOVE and an example of how it could be measured. (Did you come upon this from “firsthand” experience or second party?) Then make a poster with the group identifiers.

  28. The Elements of Emotional Experience • Cognitive component • Subjective conscious experience • Positive psychology • Physiological component • Bodily (autonomic) arousal • Behavioral component • Characteristic overt expressions

  29. Emotion--A Polygraph Examination

  30. Emotion--Lie Detectors • Control Question • Up to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? • Relevant Question • Did [the deceased] threaten to harm you in any way? • Relevant > Control --> Lie

  31. Respiration Perspiration Heart rate Control question Relevant question Control question Relevant question (a) (b) Emotion--Lie Detectors

  32. Theories of Emotion • James-Lange • Feel afraid because pulse is racing • Cannon-Bard • Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system • Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory • Look to external cues to decide what to feel • Evolutionary Theories • Innate reactions with little cognitive interpretation

  33. Expressed Emotion • Culturally universal expressions

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