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Theories of Motivation. An Overview of Some of the Popular Management Theorists. Alderfer’s ERG Theory. Clayton P Alderfer proposed a hierarchy involving three sets of needs: Existence : needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions.

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Theories of Motivation

An Overview of Some of the

Popular Management Theorists


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Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Clayton P Alderfer proposed a hierarchy involving three sets of needs:

  • Existence: needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions.

  • Relatedness: needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships.

  • Growth: needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions.

  • Tested by Thematic Apperception Test

ERG Theory


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ERG Theory Relationships Among Frustration, Importance, and Satisfaction of Needs

Frustration

of growth needs

Importance

of growth needs

Satisfaction

of growth needs

Frustration of

relatedness needs

Importance of

relatedness needs

Satisfaction of

relatedness needs

Frustration

of existence needs

Importance

of existence needs

Satisfaction of

existence needs


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Chris Satisfaction of NeedsArgyris (1923 -

  • Influenced by the humanist approach of Abraham Maslow and the socio-technical process of E. Wight Bakke.

  • Indicated his feelings about how organizations neglected human needs.

  • If treated like a child one will behave like a child – result is organizational mediocrity

Chris Argyris

Maturity – Immaturity Continuum


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Chris Satisfaction of NeedsArgyris – Personality vs. Organization

  • Certain organizational practices, such as the division of labor, interfere with the development of healthy human personalities.

  • These practices promote immature, not mature behavior.

  • In an attempt to self-actualize, individuals run into the obstacles posed by formal organizations.

  • The result is defensive behaviors, with management reacting by becoming more autocratic or by turning to sugar-coated human relations.


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Chris Satisfaction of NeedsArgyris


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Albert Satisfaction of NeedsBandura

Albert Bandura proposed a social cognitive theory (social learning theory; self-efficacy theory) which refers to an individual’s belief that they are capable of performing a task.

Four ways self efficacy can be increased:

  • Enactive mastery – if you’ve performed task in the past, you can do it again

  • Vicarious modeling – you become more confident because you see someone else do the task

  • Verbal persuasion – you become more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to perform task

  • Arousal – if you get “psyched up” then you perform better

Social Learning

Self-efficacy

Social Cognitive


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Abraham Maslow Satisfaction of Needs

Maslow defined human needs as:

Physiological: the need for food, drink, shelter, and relief from pain.

Safety and security: the need for freedom from threat; the security from threatening events or surroundings.

Belongingness, social, and love: the need for friendship, affiliation, interaction, and love.

Esteem:the need for self-esteem and for respect from others.

Self-actualization: the need to fulfill oneself by maximizing the use of abilities, skills, and potential

Hierarchy of Needs


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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Satisfaction of Needs

  • Maslow’s theory assumes that a person attempts to satisfy the more basic needs before directing behavior toward satisfying upper-level needs.

  • Lower-order needs must be satisfied before a higher-order need begins to control a person’s behavior.

  • A satisfied need ceases to motivate.


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Need Hierarchy Satisfaction of Needs


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David McClelland Satisfaction of Needs

Proposed Theory of Needs:

Need for Achievement (nAch) – drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards

Need for Affiliation (nAff) – the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Need for Power (nPow) – need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise (to have power over them)

nAch

nPow

nAff


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McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Satisfaction of Needs

Achievement

(n Ach)

Affiliation

(n Aff)

Power

(n Pow)


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Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) Satisfaction of Needs

  • Taught psychology at MIT.

  • At Antioch College, McGregor found that his classroom teaching of human relations did not always work in practice.

  • From these experiences, his ideas evolve and lead him to recognize the influence of assumptions we make about people and our managerial style.

Douglas McGregor


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Theory X Satisfaction of Needs

  • Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise – money, materials, equipment, people – in the interest of economic ends.

  • With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization.

  • Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive – even resistant – to organizational needs. They must, therefore, be persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled – their activities must be directed. This is management’s task -- in managing subordinate managers or workers. We often sum it up by saying that management consists of getting things done through other people.


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Theory X Satisfaction of Needs

  • Behind this conventional theory there are several additional beliefs – less explicit, but widespread:

    • The average man is by nature indolent – he works as little as possible.

    • He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led.

    • He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs.

    • He is by nature resistant to change.

    • He is gullible, not very bright – the ready dupe of the charlatan and the demagogue.


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Theory Y Satisfaction of Needs

  • Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise – money, materials, equipment, people – in the interest of economic ends.

  • People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations.

  • The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people. Management does not put them there. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves.

  • The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives.


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Work is inherently distasteful to most people. Satisfaction of Needs

Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed.

Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems.

Motivation occurs only at the physiological and safety levels.

Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives.

Work is as natural as play, if the conditions are favorable.

Self-control is often indispensable in achieving organizational goals.

The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population.

Motivation occurs at the social, esteem, and self-actualization levels, as well as physiological and security levels.

People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated.

Theory X Theory Y


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Frederick Herzberg Satisfaction of Needs(1923-2000)

  • His research emphasized job enrichment (depth) rather than job enlargement

    • Job context (hygiene factors) – needed to be optimal to prevent job dissatisfaction. These factors (according to Herzberg) did not motivate.

    • Job content (motivators) – factors that did lead to motivation

    • Money (according to Herzberg) could motivate if it was seen as a reward for accomplishment; but if money was given without regard for merit, then it was a hygiene factor.

Frederick Herzberg


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Motivation and Hygiene Factors Satisfaction of Needs

HYGIENE FACTORS

ENVIRONMENT

MOTIVATORS

WHAT THEY DO

Achievement

Recognition for Accomplishment

Challenging Work

Increased Responsibility

Growth and Development

Policies and Administration

Supervision

Working Conditions

Interpersonal Relations

Money, Status, Security


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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Satisfaction of Needs

Intrinsic factors

Extrinsic factors

Factors within the job context:

Factors within the job content:

  • Achievement

  • Increased responsibility

  • Recognition

  • Pay

  • Status

  • Working conditions

Dissatisfiers

Hygiene factors

Satisfiers

Motivators


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Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction - Dissatisfaction

I. TRADITIONAL

High job satisfaction

High job dissatisfaction

II. HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR VIEW

High job

satisfaction

Low job

satisfaction

  • Motivators

  • Feeling of achievement

  • Meaningful work

  • Opportunities for advancement

  • Increased responsibility

  • Recognition

  • Opportunities for growth

Low job

dissatisfaction

High job

dissatisfaction

  • Hygienes

  • Pay

  • Status

  • Job security

  • Working conditions

  • Fringe benefits

  • Policies and procedures

  • Interpersonal relations


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Frederick Herzberg Dissatisfaction


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Motivation and Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction

THE JOB SURROUNDINGS

AND THE

HYGIENE FACTORS

SUPERVISION

WORKING

CONDITIONS

RESPONSIBILITY

ACHIEVEMENT

BENEFITS

THE JOB ITSELF

AND THE

MOTIVATOR

FACTORS

COMPANY

POLICY AND

ADMINIS-

TRATION

INTER-

PERSONAL

RELATION-

SHIPS

WORK ITSELF

RECOGNITION

GROWTH

ADVANCEMENT

SECURITY

STATUS

SALARY


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A Comparison of the Content Theories Dissatisfaction

Maslow

(need hierarchy)

Self-actualization

Esteem

Belongingness,

social, and love

Safety and security

Physiological

  • Herzberg

  • (two-factor theory)

  • The work itself

  • Responsibility

  • Advancement

  • Growth

  • Achievement

  • Recognition

  • Quality of inter-

  • personal relations

  • among peers, with

  • supervisors, with

  • subordinates

  • Job security

  • Working conditions

  • Salary

Alderfer

Growth

Relatedness

Existence

McClelland

Need for

achievement

Need for

power

Need for

affiliation

Higher

order

needs

Motivators

Hygiene

conditions

Basic

needs


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Work Design Dissatisfaction

  • Richard Hackman, Edward Lawler, and Greg Oldham’s work extended Herzberg’s notions by adding a situational (it depends…) dimension

    • Key job characteristics

    • Depending on an individual’s “growth-need strength,” these characteristics could be amplified to make the job more meaningful.


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Job Characteristics Model Dissatisfaction

Critical Psychological

State

Outcomes

(Personal and Work)

Core Job Characteristics

Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Significance

Meaningfulness of Work

High Internal Work Motivation

High Quality Work Performance

High Satisfaction with Work

Low Absenteeism and Turnover

Autonomy

Responsibility for Outcomes

Feedback

About Job

Knowledge of Results of Work

Employee Growth Need


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Motivation: Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom Dissatisfaction

  • The expectancy theory of Victor Vroom helps explain the choosing process among individuals in terms of the value (valence) of the reward and the expectancy of receiving the reward.

Victor Vroom


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Expectancy Theory Dissatisfaction


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Expectancy Theory Dissatisfaction

  • Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler extended Vroom’s work with their model of expectancy.


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Expectancy Theory Dissatisfaction

(Lyman W. Porter – Edward E. Lawler III)

1

Value of

Reward

8

Perceived

Equitable

Rewards

4

Abilities

And

Traits

7A

Intrinsic

Rewards

Performance

(Accomplishments)

3

9

Effort

Satisfaction

6

7B

Extrinsic

Rewards

Role

Perceptions

5

Perceived

Effect-Reward

Probability

2

Revised Diagram of the Theoretical Model

SOURCE: Managerial Attitudes and Performance, 1968, Richard D. Irwin Inc.


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Principles of Expectancy Theory Dissatisfaction

  • V1 =S(V2 x I)

    • The valence associated with various first-level outcomes is a sum of the multiplication of the valences(V2)attached to all second-level outcomes with their respective instrumentalities(I)

  • M = f(V1 x E)

    • Motivation is a multiplicative function of the valence for each first-level outcome(V1) and the perceived expectancy(E)that a given behavior will be followed by a particular first-level outcome

  • P = f(M x A)

    • Performance is considered to be a multiplicative function of motivation (the force) and ability


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Process Theories of Motivation: DissatisfactionExpectancy Theory(continued)

Management practices:

  • Managers need to focus on employee expectations for success.

  • Managers must actively determine which second-level outcomes are important to employees.

  • Managers should link desired second-level outcomes to the organization’s performance goals.


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Expectancy Theory Example Dissatisfaction

Expectancy

(probability of

performance given

effort)

Performance

outcome

(valences x

instrumentalities)

Instrumentalities (how

much performance

outcome and second-level

outcome are associated

Valences of second-

level outcomes

(in parentheses)

0.6

Day off (6)

Finishing budget

on time (6.9)

Recognition/compliment

from boss (3)

1.0

Mention of performance

in personnel record (1)

0.3

2.76

0.4

0.2

Day off (6)

Finishing budget

on required day

but after deadline

(3.2)

Motivation

Recognition/compliment

from boss (3)

2.24

0.7

0.7

Mention of performance

in personnel record (1)

-0.1

.20

1.0

0.0

Day off (6)

Finishing budget

on day after

deadline (.20)

Recognition/compliment

from boss (3)

0.2

Mention of performance

in personnel record (1)

-0.4


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Equity Theory Dissatisfaction

  • Equity theory is not a new one but focuses on how individuals perceive their reward or pay compared to what others are receiving.

  • Issues of social justice and distributive justice are involved in the theories of Stacy Adams and Elliot Jaques.

Elliot Jacques


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Process Theories of Motivation: DissatisfactionEquity Theory

  • Employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar work situations.

  • Individuals, who work in exchange for rewards from the organization, are motivated by a desire to be equitably treated at work.

  • Equity exists when employees perceive that the ratios of their inputs (efforts) to their outcomes (rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other similar employees.

  • Inequity exists when these ratios are not equivalent.


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The Equity Theory of Motivation Dissatisfaction

OPORP IP IRP

A person (P) with certain inputs (I) and receiving certain outcomes (O)

Compares his/her input/outcome ratio to reference person’s (RP) inputs (I) and outcomes (O)

equity

=

and perceives

or

inequity

OPORP IP IRP

<

or

inequity

OPORP IP IRP

>

IP: Inputs of the person

OP: Outcomes of the person

IRP: Inputs of reference person

ORP: Outcomes of reference person


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Managing Across Cultures Dissatisfaction

  • Geert Hofstede (1928 - ) describes cultural differences in different countries.

    • Individualism vs. collectivism (group orientation);

    • Power Distance: The level of preference for equality or inequality within groups:

    • Uncertainty avoidance: The preference for risk vs. structure.

    • Masculinity (assertiveness) vs. femininity (tender values).

    • Long term vs. Short term orientation.

Geert Hofstede

Courtesy of Prof. Hofstede


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Last Thoughts …… Dissatisfactionfrom Peter Drucker

“I would hope that American managers—indeed, managers worldwide—continue to appreciate what I have been saying almost since day one: that management is so much more than exercising rank and privilege; it’s so much more than ‘making deals.’ Management affects people and their lives, both in business and in many other aspects as well. The practice of management deservers our utmost attention; it deserves to be studied”


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