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Motivation and emotion

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  1. Motivation and emotion Dr Joan Harvey

  2. Motivation • Complex area- many theories • Theories from work and consumer bases • Consumer example: Statt [1997]- buying behaviour as product of • Ability • Opportunity • Motivation

  3. Motivation theories • Intrinsic theories: Maslow • Physiological- housing, clothing, food and drink • Safety and security- job security, burglar alarms, safety features on products • Social, love and belongingness- friendships and social support at work, team sports • Self esteem- feeling of worth or importance- recognition, promotion, luxury goods, jewellery • Self actualisation- doing what you really want to do at work, education, skills development, ‘experiences’

  4. Motivation theories • Murray’s inventory of social needs • Including superiority, achievement, play, succourance, nurturance etc. • Arousal theory • Failure to arouse will have little effect • Priming to create arousal • Theory X and theory Y and theory Z • Relevant insofar as makes statements which are general enough to apply at work

  5. Incentive and reinforcement theories • Studies of role of money • Instrumentality • Indicative of status • Provides some independence and autonomy • Based on principles • Perceives reward to be worth the effort • Wants that reward • Perceives that action will lead to that reward

  6. Utility and related theories • Based on nature of utility, usually a product of value and probability, of both success and loss; e.g. consumers perception of risk related to losses • function, money, social, psychological, appearance, injury • Need for achievement • nAch and fear of failure • Need for affiliation • Need for power • Equity theory • Motivational calculus and expectancy theory

  7. Modern intrinsic theories • Cognitive evaluation theory • Curiosity, incongruity and discrepancy • Competence, mastery, efficacy and challenge • Personal control over environment and self-determination

  8. Other motivational issues • Unconscious motivation • Work behaviours or products as substitutes and fulfillments • Reinforcing needs that one is unaware of • Semiotics and the meaning of NVBs, or goods, logos, symbolism and ritual gift giving

  9. Motivational mix • Multiple motives • Approach and avoidance issues [Lewin] • Force of inertia • Involvement • Antecedents of person, product and situation • Properties- feeling and behaviour when aroused • Outcomes- depend on interaction of antecedents and properties

  10. Emotion • Transient, ephemeral so difficult to investigate • Strong determinant of behaviour at work • Probably 7 main emotions • Anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, happiness and contempt • Easier to judge from facial expressions and NVC than from what people say • Concept of EI • As an answer to problem that intelligence is only a partial predictor of success in management • Emotionality, self awareness, empathy, motivation and drive, long/short term orientation

  11. Thank you for listening • Joan Harvey