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Motivation,personality and emotion
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Motivation,personality and emotion

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  1. Motivation,personality and emotion

  2. Lecture overview • What is motivation? • How can we explain motivation? • How do marketers appeal to consumers’ motives? • What are the theories of personality? • What is the link to marketing strategy? • Motivation • Personality • emotions

  3. Definitions • Motivation: • Energising force that activates behaviour and provides purpose and direction to behaviour • Personality: • Reflects the common responses that individuals make to a variety of recurring situations • Emotions: • Strong, relatively uncontrollable feelings that affect behaviour

  4. Nature of motivation • Is the reason for behaviour • Represents an unobservable, inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioural response and provides specific direction for that response • A motive is why an individual does something

  5. Theories of motivation • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: • A macro theory designed to account for behaviour in general terms • McGuire’s psychological motives: • Uses a fairly detailed set of motives to account for a limited range of consumer behaviour

  6. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Underpinning assumptions: • Humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction • Some motives are more basic than others • The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated • As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives activate

  7. Hierarchy of needs • 5. Self-actualising: desire for fulfillment • 4. Esteem: desire for status, superiority, self respect. Relate to individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment • 3. Belongingness: reflected in desire for love, friendship, affiliation, accomplishment • 2. Safety: seeking physical safety and security, familiar surroundings etc. • 1. Physiological: food, water, sleep

  8. McGuire’s Psychological motives • Internal, non-social motives: • Consistency: desire to have all facets of oneself consistent with each other • Attribute causation: to determine who or what causes the things that happen to us • Categorise: we need to be able to categorise/organise information and experiences in some meaningful/manageable way

  9. Internal, non-social motives (cont) • Cues: or observable symbols to enable consumers to infer what is felt and known • Independence: for feelings of control & self-governance • Novelty: for variety

  10. External, social motives • Self-expression: to express one’s identity to others • Ego-defence: to protect one’s self-concept • Assertion: to engage in those activities which will increase self-esteem • Reinforcement: people act in a certain way because they are rewarded for it • Affiliation: to develop mutually helpful and satisfying relationships, share & be accepted • Modeling: to base behaviour on that of others

  11. Motivation theory and marketing • Consumers buy motive satisfaction or problem resolution • Marketing managers must discover the motives that their products and brands can satisfy and develop marketing mix around these motives • Marketing strategy must speak to manifest and latent motives

  12. Motivational conflict • The resolution of motivational conflict often affects consumption patterns: • Approach-approach motivational conflict: consumer faces choices between two attractive alternatives • Approach-avoidance conflict: the consumer faces both positive and negative consequences with purchase of a product • Avoidance-avoidance conflict: consumer faces two unattractive options

  13. Personality • Guides and directs behaviour • Encompasses those relatively long-lasting qualities that allow consumers to respond to world around them • Marketers use personality characteristics of consumers to structure marketing strategies

  14. Individual personality theories • All individuals have internal characteristics or traits • For these characteristics, there are consistent and measurable differences between individuals • Environment or situations are not considered in these theories

  15. Social learning theories • Emphasise the environment as the important determinant of behaviour • Systematic differences in situations, in stimuli or social settings are of major interest, not differences in traits, needs or other individual properties • Social theorists classify situations • These theories deal with ways people learn to respond to the environment and the patterns of responses they learn

  16. Use of personality in marketing • Products have their own ‘brand personality’ • People assign personalities to brands based on: • Characteristics of product category • Brand’s features • Packaging • Advertising • Consumers will tend to purchase the product with the personality that closely matches their own, or that strengthens an area in which they feel weak

  17. Emotion • Strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behaviour • Are generally triggered by environmental events, although internal processes (imagery) can trigger emotions • Are accompanied by physiological changes • Emotions are generally accompanied by thinking, and have associated behaviours, and involve subjective feelings

  18. Types of emotions • Plutchik: • Fear • Anger • Joy • Sadness • Acceptance • Disgust • Expectancy • surprise

  19. Emotions and marketing strategy • Marketers use emotions to guide product positioning, sales presentations and advertising: • Emotion arousal as a product benefit • Emotion reduction as a product benefit • Emotion in advertising: • Emotional content of advertisements enhances their attention-attraction and attention-maintenance capabilities • Positive-emotion-eliciting advertisements may increase brand preference (through classical conditioning)

  20. Summary • Consumer motivations are energising forces that activate behaviour and make it purposeful and directed • Consumer motivations are highly situation specific • It is necessary to understand what motives and behaviours are influenced by specific situations • Consumers have manifest and latent motives, which can be determined by motivation-research techniques

  21. Summary (cont) • Because of the large number of motivations, motivational conflict can occur • The personality of the consumer guides and directs the behaviour chosen for accomplishing goals in different situations • There are 2 basic approaches to understanding personality: • Individual personality theories • Social learning theories

  22. Summary(cont) • Brands have personalities • Consumers tend to prefer products with personalities that are pleasing to them • Consumers prefer advertising messages that portray their own personality or a desired one • Marketers design and position products to both arouse and reduce emotions • Advertisements include emotion-arousing material to increase attention, degree of processing, remembering and brand preference

  23. Discovering motives • Manifest motives: consumers recognise and will share these motives • Latent motives: consumers are unaware of these motives, or reluctant to admit them • Association techniques • Completion techniques • Construction techniques