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Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics. Vicki Sterling Linda Venekamp. Understanding Literature Narratives Elements of a story (story grammar). Plot elements -Rising action progressive, episodic, flashbacks - Internal and external conflict - Complication, problem

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language arts and reading study topics

Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics

Vicki Sterling

Linda Venekamp

understanding literature narratives elements of a story story grammar
Understanding Literature NarrativesElements of a story (story grammar)

Plot elements

-Rising action

progressive, episodic, flashbacks

- Internal and external conflict

- Complication, problem

- Suspense, cliffhanger

- Crisis

- Climax or turning point

- Resolution

understanding literature narratives
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • Characterization (through a character’s words, thoughts, actions, appearance, etc.)
  • Setting established through description of scenes, colors, smells, etc.)
  • Tone(manner of expression in speech or writing)
    • tongue in cheek, edgy, soft
  • Theme
  • Point of view (first person, third-person objective, third –person omniscient)
  • Perspective (attitude of the narrator of the story)
understanding literature narratives1
Understanding Literature Narratives

Literary devices and style elements

  • Foreshadowing
  • Figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile, hyperbole, personification)
  • Symbol
  • Imagery

Glossary of Terms

understanding literature narratives2
Understanding Literature Narratives

Literary devices and style elements

  • Word choice
  • Mechanics (e.g., punctuation, sentence structure)
  • Use of dialect or slang
understanding literature narratives3
Fiction genres


Short story

Science fiction




Folk tale

Fairy tale

Play (comedy, tragedy)


Historical fiction

Adventure story


Understanding Literature Narratives
  • In class we use
    • Fiction
      • Realistic
      • Fantasy
      • Traditional
    • Non-fiction
      • Biography
      • Informational
    • Poetry

Genres in Children’s Literature


Comprehension of nonfiction

  • Identify the author’s point of view or perspective
  • Identify the main idea, primary hypothesis, or primary purpose (e.g., to persuade, to inform, to analyze, or to evaluate)
  • Evaluate the clarity of the information
  • Make valid inferences or conclusions based on the selection
  • Identify, where appropriate, an author’s appeal to reason, appeal to emotion, or appeal to authority
  • Evaluate the relationship between stated generalizations and actual evidence given
  • Evaluate organization of a selection
  • For informational texts, evaluate the effectiveness of their organizational and graphic aids
nonfiction genres
Trade Book




News article


Professional journal articles

Book review

Political speech

Technical manual

Primary source material

Lewis and Clark

Nonfiction genres

Construction of meaning in poetry

  • Main idea or theme
  • Symbolism
  • Tone, emotion
Poetic elements

Verse, stanza


Line length


Roses are red,

Violets are blue,

Sugar is sweet

And, so are you.

If you love me

As I love you,

No knife can cut

Our love in two.

Tell me not in mournful numbers

My love for you

Will never fail

As long as pussy




Rhyme and Sound Patterns

Rhyme scheme

Onomatopoeia - words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to

Repetition of words

Alliteration - same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words

Assonance - repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds

A goblin lives in our house, in our house, in our house,

A goblin lives in our house all the year round.

He bumps

And he jumps

And he thumps (thump thump)

And he stumps (stump stump.)

He knocks (knock knock)

And he rocks

And he rattles at the locks.

A goblin lives in our house, in our house, in our house,

A goblin lives in our house all the year round.

- Rose Fyleman


Imagery and figures of speech

  • Personification - Flowers danced about the lawn
  • Metaphor - All the world's a stage
  • Simile - How like the winter hath my absence been or So are you to my thoughts as food to life
  • Hyperbole - I could sleep for a year or This book weighs a ton.
Poetic types and forms



Free verse








This is the BEST review site: English Poetry

resource and research material
Resource and research material

Reference works

  • Dictionary
  • Encyclopedia
  • Thesaurus
  • Atlas
  • Almanac
resource and research material1
Resource and research material


  • Keyword search
  • Databases
  • Bulletin boards
resource and research material2
Resource and research material

Other sources

  • Books
  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Professional journals
  • Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature
  • Primary sources, including reproductions of original documents
resource and research material3
Resource and research material

Using resources and reference material

  • Appropriateness of various sources to the project
  • Quotations and paraphrases of experts
  • Footnotes
  • Bibliography
patterns of expository writing
Patterns of expository writing
  • Compare and contrast
  • Chronological sequence
  • Spatial sequence
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution
structural elements in text
Structural elements in text

Thesis statement

Conclusion statement

Transition words and phrases

Supporting the thesis with the use of

  • Examples
  • Quotations
  • Paraphrases of excerpts’ statements
  • Summaries of information found in research sources
  • Analogies
The only real innovation during the Renaissance period in terms of transport was seen in the Americans. By the fifteenth century, the Incas had constructed a network of fine roads for couriers. Rivers were crossed by monkey bridges of cable of plaited agave fibre, or floating bridges, or pontoons of reeds. In addition, the Incas used caravans of llamas, bred as beasts of burden even though they could only carry a hundredweight, and could only travel fifteen miles a day. These were the only important domestic animals of the Americas before 1492, and they were quite inadequate.
Approaching one’s topic with the purpose with the purpose of
  • Criticizing
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating pros and cons
language in writing grammar and usage
Language in WritingGrammar and Usage

Parts of speech

  • Noun: proper, common, collective
  • Pronoun
  • Verb
  • Adjective
  • Adverb
  • Preposition

Definitions and quizzes:

language in writing grammar and usage1
Language in WritingGrammar and Usage
  • Conjunction
  • Phrase
    • Participial phrase
    • Prepositional phrase
    • Appositive phrase
  • Clause
    • Independent clause
    • Dependent clause

language in writing grammar and usage2
Language in WritingGrammar and Usage

Syntactical Systems

  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Verb tenses: present, past, present perfect, past perfect, future, and future perfect
  • Voice of verb: active or passive
  • Pronoun-antecedent agreement and weak reference
  • Correct use of infinitive and participle
sentence types and sentence structure
Sentence types and sentence structure

Sentence types

  • Declarative
  • Interrogative
  • Exclamatory
  • Imperative
sentence types and sentence structure1
Sentence types and sentence structure

Sentence Structure

  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
  • Compound-complex
  • Sentence fragment

orthography and morphology spelling study of word formation
Orthography and MorphologySpelling & Study of Word Formation
  • Affixes: prefix, suffix
  • Roots
  • Inflectional endings -indicate tense, number, possession or comparison

Most words-walks, walked, walking

Words ending in e-come, coming

Words ending in y-carry carried carrying

Words ending in a single vowel & a consonant-hop, hopping, hopped

  • Clusters (combining clusters to make compound words)
  • Homonyms
  • Antonyms
  • Synonyms
  • Multiple-meaning words
  • Words used figuratively or idiomatically (e.g., he “wolfed” down his food)
  • Meaning-shifts due to alternative word order or punctuation
l iteracy acquisition and reading instruction
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction

Theories and concepts concerning

reading development

Major elements of the emergent literacy theory and major conclusions of recent research

major elements of the emergent literacy theory and major conclusions of recent research
Major elements of the emergent literacy theory and major conclusions of recent research
  • Acting like a reader is part of becoming a reader
  • Reading & writing are closely related process-not taught in isolation
  • Social process
  • Preschoolers know a great deal about printed language
  • Becoming literate is a continuous, developmental process
  • Need to read authentic & natural texts
  • Need to write for personal reasons
literacy acquisition and reading instruction
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction

Factors influencing the development of emergent reading

  • Concepts about print
  • Sight vocabulary
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Alphabetic principle
  • Social interaction (support by adults and peers)
literacy acquisition and reading instruction1
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Frequent experiences with print
  • Prior knowledge (schema)
  • Motivation
  • Fluency
literacy acquisition and reading instruction2
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction

Experiences that support emergent readers

  • Direct instruction
  • Social interaction
  • Shared reading
  • Repeated readings
  • Reader response
  • Word walls
  • Text innovation (rewrites)
  • Shared writing
What are some of the major relationships between and among reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing, and why are these relationships important for teacher of emergent readers to understand?
children s literature
Children’s literature

Selection of materials

  • Who selects and in what situations?
  • Quality of material
  • Appropriate content
  • Needs and interests of children
  • School curriculum
  • Balance in the collection
children s literature1
Traditional criteria for evaluating fiction




Specialized criteria for these types of literature

Picture books


Informational books


Children’s literature

Newbery and Caldecott Awards

children s literature2
Children’s literature

Additional criteria for these genres of fiction

  • Realistic story
    • Mystery
  • Historical fiction
  • Modern fantasy
strategies for word study solving
Strategies for Word study/solving

Cues and how students use them

  • Semantic (refers to the meaning of language-the words and parts of words that convey meaning as well as the way sentences, paragraphs, & whole texts are interpreted by listeners and readers.)
  • Syntactic systems (refers to the patterns of rules by which words are put together in meaningful phrases & sentences)

“Mary ran of to see her friends.”

strategies for word study solving1
Strategies for Word study/solving
  • Phonological system (the way listeners construct meaning from streams of sounds)
  • Visual information (what you see when you read)

-Relationship to print

-Recognizing whole words

-Word patterns


-Letters in sequence

Samuel and his cousin John Adams felt the


same way about American’s independence.


Yet they had different opinions about riding


horses like other men did. Samuel argued


that walking or riding in a carriage suited

him better.

children s literature strategies for comprehension
Children's Literature Strategies for Comprehension

Use of prior knowledge


Guided reading


Reader response

children s literature3
Children's Literature

Strategies for comprehension

  • Solving words
  • Adjusting reading according to purpose and context
  • Metacognition
  • Maintaining fluency
  • Making connections (personal, world, text)
A class is reading a book that has chapter numbers but no chapter titles. The teacher asks the students to think of an appropriate title for each chapter. What is the main purpose in choosing this activity? Why is it a useful activity?
children s literature4
Children's Literature

Study skills and tools

  • SQ3R
  • KWL
  • Note taking
  • Marking and coding
  • Graphic organizers
  • Finding information in charts, tables, graphs
What are some effective ways to use graphic organizers if students understand most of the details in a unit, but not the central idea of the unit?

What are some effective ways of guiding students to understand articles that feature text and variety of graphics?

communication skills stages of writing development
Communication SkillsStages of writing development


  • Picture writing
  • Scribble writing
  • Random letter
  • Invented spelling
  • Conventional writing

Concurrent development with reading

communication skills
Communication Skills

Stages of the writing process

Recursive nature of the process

  • Explore/Prewrite
  • Draft
  • Edit
  • Publish
communication skills1
Communication Skills

Spelling development Constructive nature of the development stages



-Early phonics

-Letter name




communication skills2
Communication Skills

Elements of speaking

  • Purpose
  • Audience
  • Inclusion of visuals
  • Tone
  • Opening and closing
communication skills3
Communication Skills
  • Details and anecdotes
  • Volume, pitch, pace, gestures
  • Eye contact
  • Voice modulation
  • Focus, organization, structure, point of view
communication skills4
Communication Skills

Elements of listening

  • Listening to and following directions
  • Responding to literature read aloud
  • Agreeing or disagreeing with the ideas in a speech
  • Asking for clarification
  • Expanding on an idea
communication skills5
Communication Skills
  • Repeating or paraphrasing to verify one’s understanding
  • Calling for evidence
  • Summarizing major ideas and supporting evidence
  • Interpreting volume, pitch, pace, gestures
  • Evaluating mood or tone