Language Skills - Reading 9710004M Jeffrey 9710009M Carl 9710010M Joyce
Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language
Introduction 1. Reading has been increased focus • The most important skills for L2 learners 2. The teaching of writing and oral skills • Integrated with reading instruction for NES and ELLs. • NES: Native English Speakers • ELLs: English Language Learners
3. Integrate expectation • The development of four languages Reading as a Complex Interactive Process 1. Reading is interactive, sociocognitive process • A text, a reader, and a social context
2. Six areas have been identified: Automatic recognition skills Vocabulary and structural knowledge Formal discourse structure knowledge Content/world background knowledge Synthesis and evaluation skills/strategies Meta-cognitive knowledge and skill monitoring
Becoming Literate in a Second Language Similarities in the process of learning Read for ELL and NES children Been used to native and non-native readers Differences in the process of learning L2 learners shouldn’t be segregated from L1learners Teachers of ESL students need to be prepared and need to adjust the instructional strategies
Oral Language Skills and Academic Literacy Skills NES and ELL children’s difference For NES children Acquire their mother tongue naturally For ELL children Completely new language Learn quickly on informal oral language
2. The importance of accessing students Oral and written language abilities independently For knowing students’ overall language proficiency level 3. The research suggests that ELLs can learn to read and write without oral fluency e.g., NES acquire English.
4. ELL Children prefer written language input first However, 5. Mutual support on four skills when practicing Provide abundant exposure to Functional, meaningful uses Oral and written language for all learners
The Role of the First Language in Literacy Development 1. Children can learn L2 even though the teacher can’t speak the L1s NES bring oral language to read and write ELL may bring the literacy background to learn L2 2. A strong relationship Between children’s prior native language literacy and their development of English literacy
Varied Experiences, Background Knowledge, and Cultures of ESL Students 1. Teacher must be cautious about • Making any assumption about • Cultural or language background of ELLs 2. Implications for teachers of ESL literacy • ELLs bring the differences • Background knowledge • Degrees of topic familiarity • Different background knowledge and topic affect ESL student’s comprehension
3. Variability affect comprehension Incorporate “responsive teaching” Ss’ cultural background and experiences Various method to activate the ss’s schemata Choosing reading material on familiar topics
First Language Literacy 1. Younger children is easy to fit a new environment With younger ESL children NES peers are developing literacy as well = ESL can catch up NES peer’s level 2. For older beginning ELLs Important to provide reading material Appeal to their age level and interest
3. Some assumptions we make about print • Pictures with text • Read from left to right, front to back, top to bottom • Words written separately • Quotation marks • Punctuation • Different rules and convention from oral language
Is There An Optimal Way to Teach Reading and Writing? • Part-Centered Approaches (Code-Emphasis; Bottom-up) • Phonics approaches • Sound-symbol patterns and conscious learning of rules • Students can decode new words • Phonemic Awareness • Speech consists of individual sounds
Linguistic approach • Regular spelling patterns • Infer the letter-sound relationships • Special alphabet (about 44 phonemes) • Children learn to read easily • Sight word or look-say method • Recognize about half of the words they encounter in most texts • Rapid recognition or “decoding”
Basal reader approach • Children learn to read • Careful control, sequencing, and the sounds • Graded, sequenced skills at increasing levels • “Eclectic” • Phonics • Regularly patterned words • Basic sight words • View reading as the mastery of individual reading skills
2. Socio-Psycholinguistic Approaches (Meaning-Emphasis; Top-down) • LEA (Language Experience Approach) • From the familiar to the unknown • Reader’s knowledge and schemata similar to the text they are reading • A series of steps • Dictate • Teacher and class read the story • Engage in various extended activities • Read other’s writing
Useful for beginning readers and writers • Only dictate the story, and even done collaboratively • “Writing to read” • Match between children’s knowledge or experience and the texts they read
Literature-based approach • Intention of focusing on • Meaning, interest, and enjoyment • Satisfy individual children’s needs • Have access to a collection of books • Books either slight above their reading level or best fit students’ interest • If their interest is held by the books they’ve selected, they will want to continue reading.
Whole Language approach Teaching reading, guiding and assisting students Developmental stages Scribbling Seeing print and drawing Using letters of the alphabet Using one or two letters Using letters to represent the sounds Using transitional spellings Using Conventional spelling
Incorporate all of the language skills “Authentic” texts with function of literacy
The Phonics/Whole Language Debate • Inconclusive result of numerous studies • Don’t address issues of comprehension • Children care about the right pronunciation • Less comprehension of what they read • Some sounds and patterns don’t follow basic sound-symbol correspondence • ELLs children may have been taught • Basal readers have been criticized
Conclusion Bond and Dykstra reached Systematic emphasis and teaching of word study skills are necessary Eclectic programs produced better results Not all reading program work equally in all situations Children are able to learn to read by various methods and materials A writing component is likely to be an effective addition Improvements would result from adopting certain element from each methods
Balanced Approach (whole-to-part-to-whole) Skills and meaning always be kept together Systematically predetermined instruction that is identical Intensive instruction on individual skills or strategies Regular documentation and assessment of students’ learning Language arts instruction must be integrated
Standards and Second Language Literacy Development • Standards dealing with the various areas • Diversity may not the key role of influencing the language acquisition • Complex curriculum and instruction design • The TESOL standards is a bridge
Strategies to Facilitate Second Language Literacy Development and Help Students Achieve Standards • Expose Students to the Many Uses of Print around Them • Label items in the room • Focus attention on the print • Manage aspects of classroom business • Establish a regular place to post messages • Record class discussion on chart paper • Create areas for specific literacy purpose • Display different genres of material
Provide Opportunities for Children to Read More Extensively on a Subject • Effectively extensive reading • Excellent resources from Internet • Provide Authentic Purpose for Reading and Writing • Natural urge to communicate • Real communication contexts
Provide Scaffolding for Learning • Temporary support • Decrease or remove support • Use Oral Skills to Support Reading and Writing Development • Van den Branden (2000) found that the discussion of teacher and peers with facilitation is better than just simplified the text for comprehension. • Encourage cooperative groups • Explain orally what they will write • Report back the class what they accomplish
Focus Students’ Attention on Reading and Writing Strategies • Thinking about what topic they know • Asking whether the similar words I know • Looking backward and forward (context) • Monitoring whether understand the content
SUMMARY • Three elements involved in reading • The text, the reader, the context • Children also need to master their L2 • Teachers need to be familiar with various approaches to teaching reading • Make wise choices about how to teach
Developing Adult Literacies Forward • Examine the role of language and literacies in learners’ lives • Examines critical contexts for ESL literacy instruction. • Provide a synthesis of orientations to curriculum and teaching.
Introduction • Profiles in Diversity and Strength • Adults like these have different histories, circumstances, and purposes for wanting to develop and improve language and literacy skills. • Understand the possibilities for language and literacy instruction. • It is important to know something about learners----resources, needs, goals for learning English.
What is English as a Second Language (ESL) Literacy? • Non-literate • Pre-literate • Bi-literate
Many Learners, Many Literacies • National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS): • Prose literacy news stories, poems • Document literacy job application, transportation schedules • Quantitative literacy order forms
Contexts For Literacy Instruction • Four themes or purposes for language and literacy learning emerged: • Access:information • Voice:express ideas and opinions • Independent:solve problems and make decision • Bridge to the future:learning how to learn
Basic Adult ESL/Literacy and Lifelong Learning • Adults pursued their desire to improve language and literacy skill for : Personal Professional Academic reason
Family or Intergenerational Literacy • Describe how literacy is valued and use in the lives of children and adults. • Describe educational programs designed to strengthen literacy resources by involving at least two generations for a variety of stated goals.
Family Literacy Program Goals and Models • Support parents in promoting children’s school achievement • Foster a love of reading among both adults and children • Provide literacy to support adults in addressing family concerns • Aim to reconnect the generations in positive ways
Issues and Agendas in Family Literacy • Illustrate tensions when the culture of schooling violates the norms of family values. • Majority of family literacy programs are designed to foster participation of children and their mothers. • Family literacy programs often grow from sources in early childhood education.
Goals of Pre-employment and Workplace Programs • To get a job • To survive on a job • To thrive on a job (and have job mobility)
Issues and Agendas in Literacy for Workers: Workplace or Workforce Education • Workplace education: Improve productivity in a given job • Workforce education: More oriented toward education of the whole person in his or her roles as a parent, community member, and even as a union member.
Civic ESL/Literacy Education • Created to assist immigrants in assimilating to life in the United States. • Evaluate the applicant’s knowledge of U.S. history and government by quizzing applicants from a list of 100 questions, as well as testing basic knowledge of spoken and written English.
Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy Education • Assist learners in preparing to take the naturalization exam. • Question Division • Information gap activities • Flash cards
Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy Education • Encourage learners who have been naturalized to exercise their newly earned franchise with the vote. • Mock election • Voting basics • How and where to find information
Goals of Civic ESL/Literacy Education • Focus more broadly on many forms of civic participation. • Examine their beliefs • Identify and analyze issues • Build skills and strategies
Issues in Civic ESL Literacy Education • The schism illuminates the irony that the citizenship exam, as it’s currently conceived and administered, does little to promote engagement for learners in the life of their communities. • A challenge for concerned ESL teachers to prepare learners for a test that has grave consequences for their lives, while also encouraging them to develop a voice and become informed and active members of their communities.
Orientations to Curriculum and Instruction • Mastery or Transmission of Knowledge • Mastery-based orientation: focus on linguistic structures, language skills, specific content, and competencies.
Mastery or Transmission of Knowledge • Language structures:grammar translation to contemporary textbook organized by verb tense and language form, mastery of language structures. • Language skills:with varying degrees of attention to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing.