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Chapter 8. LANGUAGE, LITERARCY, AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION. Language Literacy and Bilingual Education. Teaching Objectives. Reading one Reading 2 Writing Skills Assignment . Reading One. Bilingual Education in the United States. Reading One. Warm-up Discussion

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chapter 8

Chapter 8



Reading one

Reading 2

Writing Skills


reading one
Reading One

Bilingual Education

in the United States

reading one6
Reading One
  • Warm-up Discussion
  • Predict the Main Ideas
  • Reading Activities
  • Language Points
  • Supplementary Listening and discussion
warm up discussion
Warm-up — Discussion

How many languages can people around you speak?

  • Why does he or she can speak more than one language?
  • What does people call the person who can speak more than one language?
  • Do you know the difference between second language and foreign language?
warm up
  • In China, what language do most teachers speak when they teach?
  • What kind of education can be called Bilingual education? Is it existing in China?
  • Do you know in what conditions will school offer bilingual education?
predict ideas
Predict Ideas




in the U.S.






(How )

reading activities
Reading Activities
  • Survey and revise your prediction
  • Work out the outline of the text
  • Find out features of BE in the U.S.
  • Four BE models and which model is most effective?
  • Reasons for or against BE
reading activities11
Reading Activities

What is B.E.?(1)

Federal laws on B.E.(2)


B.E. models.(3-7)

Controversy over B.E.(8-11)

reading activities12
Reading Activities

Features of B.E.

in U.S.




Language of









English and





reading activities13

General introduction

Specific description

topic sentence


One of the …is called…

Another kind of…is called…

Two-way BE is a program…

Finally, there is …

The ways in which …

Vary greatly

(Para 2 last sentence)

Reading Activities

Logical organization—describe models

reading activities14

a waste of money

& unsuccessful


favorable opinions

NL’s positive role

For nonnative SS

Law in CA.

BE is illegal


-proposing similar law



Reading Activities


over BE

in US

language study



Language Study

Words and expressions

Grammatical structures

words and expressions
Words and Expressions


a person who receives and entertains one or more other people as guests

a person, place or organization that provides the necessary space, equipment,etc. for a special event.

the host country of Olympics

Compare of a television program, etc.

Host vs. hostess Host vs. guest



a large number of [+of]

we are faced with a host of difficulties.

Host vt.

(Infml) to act as a host of (a party, friendly meeting, TV show, etc.)

China will host the Olympic Games in 2008.

let s practice
Let’s Practice

Wang xiaya is the hostess for a quiz show program.


Los Angeles and Moscow have hosted the Olympic Games.


We didn't see the host till the end of the party.


other than
Other than

except; apart from

The boy can do nothing other than cry.

You can’t get there other than by boat.

anything but

I have never known him behave other than selfish.

implement v
implement v.






carry out; put into effect

The committee’s decisions will be implemented immediately.

vary v
vary v.

be different in size, volume, strength, etc.[in ]

  • These fish vary in weight from 1 kilo to 5 kilos.

to change, esp. continually [from]

  • Prices of watermelon vary greatly with the seasons.
  • His mood varied from optimism to extreme depression.
variety n
variety n.

quality of not being the same, or not being the same at all times

We all need variety in our diet.


A wide variety of patterns to choose from

a variety of: many kinds of

There are a great variety of fish in the sea.

various adj
Various adj.

of (many) different kinds

For various reasons, I’d prefer not to meet him.

Several, a number of (no comp. 无比较级)

Various people said they’d seen the accident.

let s practice24
Let’s practice


The students vary in age from 15 to 50.


The student varies his role in this play

from time to time.



life is full of change and variety

The car models on exhibition this year are many and various.


The peace talk is put off once and again for a variety of reasons


maintain maintenance
maintain & maintenance

Maintain v.  

cause to continue; keep in existence at the same level, standard, etc. (维持)

Part of his job is to maintain good relations with our suppliers.

keep in good condition or working order(维修)

As one of the oldest architectures in China, Siheyuan should be well maintained.

assert as true(主张)

The man maintained his innocence throughout the trial.

support financially (供养)

The young man can earn enough to maintain a family in comfort.

Maintenance n.维护, 保持, 生活费用

He has to pay maintenance to his ex-wife.

let s practice28
Let’s practice


The school is maintained by a charity.

China hope to maintain good relations with other countries in the world.


The girl maintained her innocence./that she was innocent.



criticize v.



critic n.


criticism n.


critic critical
critic & critical

critic n.

a person who gives judgments about the good and bad qualities of something, esp. art, music, films, etc.

She is the music critic for “the times”.

Critical a.

of or at a crisis; decisive; crucial

We are at a critical time in our history.

looking for faults爱挑剔的

Why are you always so critical?

oppose v
oppose v.

to express strong disapproval of or disagreement with

oppose+ doing/n.

The president opposes giving military aid to this country.

be opposed to +doing

The students are strongly opposed to postponing the celebration.

oppose doing sth be opposed to doing sth
oppose+ doing sth, be opposed to +doing sth
  • I am opposed __ your going there alone.
  • A. against B. for C. of D. to
  • 考点: Oppose(V.) doing sth,
  • Be opposed (adj.)to sb. /sth.

opposition n.

oppose v.

opposite adj.

Propose v.

Man proposes and

God disposes.

dispose v.

Don’t forget these

Man proposes, God disposes.这个说法最早见于14世纪,起初以 “If man proposes evil, God disposes of it.” 的形式出现, 意思是上帝会阻止想要为恶的人。这里的God, 既可以指上帝, 又可以指天意。 就像我们常说的“尽人事, 听天命”、“谋事在人,成事在天”一样, 尽力而为之后, 还要顺从自然的规律。 毕竟,人类是自然的一部分, 凡事皆不可强求, 与自然的和谐是人类的生存之本。e.g. A: Bob, how about tomorrow’s driving test?Sure to pass,huh?B: I don’t know. I’ve done enough, I’d say. Anyway, man proposes, God disposes. I am praying for good luck.
man proposes god disposes
Man proposes, God disposes.
  • Man's schemes are inferior to those made by heaven .
propose proposal
Propose & Proposal

Propose v.

offer or put forward for consideration; suggest

I propose delaying our decision until the next meeting.

I propose that we delay our decision until the next meeting.

Proposal n.

put forward for office, membership of a club, etc.; nominate

We propose him for membership of the society.


I propose to go to Paris on Saturday.

suggest or offer marriage

He was trying to decide whether he should propose to her.

propose proposal38
Propose, proposal
  • 主句中若有 require , demand, suggest, insist, order, prefer, propose, recommend , request 等动词, 其后的that-分句中应使用be-型虚拟式, 即动次原形或should +动词原形。
  • 主句中若有requirement, demand, suggestion, order, preference, proposal, decision, instruction, resolution 等名词,其后的 that-分句中应使用be-型虚拟式,即动词原形或should+动词原形。
let s practice39
Let’s practice




Education experts propose that school and parents reduce students’ workload.

After a careful consideration, she accepted his proposal.

The delegation propose to end it’s visit earlier in Japan.

other expressions
Other expressions
  • point out: to direct attention to
  • I must point out that further delay would be unwise.
  • serve as: be good enough or suitable for
  • This incident serves as a reminder of how dangerous the nuclear bombs really are.
  • in favor of: in support of sb./sth. (oppose)
  • he was in favor of votes for women.
in addition: as well; besides
  • In addition, there was a crop failure in many provinces.
  • In addition to: as well as
  • In addition to giving a general introduction to computers, the course also provides practical experience.
let s practice42
Let’s practice

Directions :

Complete the sentences with the following phrases. Change its form when it is necessary

in addition

serve as

in favor of

point out


The professor ________ that fewer

students want to do research now.

points out

His car, in this case, can also _______ a bedroom.

serve as

The traffic there is always busy, _________ , it rains nearly every day.

in addition

in favor of

I am _________stopping work now.

Experiments show that daydreaming significantly __________to intellectual growth.A. attributes  C. helpsB. distributes  D. contributes

答案:D解析:固定搭配,contribute to:捐献,对…有利;attribute to:归因于;

_________English, he has to study a second foreign language.A. In addition to   C. ExceptB. Beside         D. Except for答案:A

解析:in addition to:加之,又,除…之外;except:除…之外(在整体中除去一部分),它不包括提到的; e.g. I attended classes every day except Saturday and Sunday. except for整体…除了某一点以外;e.g. The composition is well written except for a few spelling errors. beside是“在……旁边”的意思;

in addition to in addition
In addition to, In addition
  • in addition to和in addition都是很常见很常用的短语,都有“除了、还有”的意思,但它们的用法是完全不同的,我们就来区分一下。
  • In addition to整个词组相当于一个介词,所以to的后面要接宾语。例如:
  • In addition to native plants, this garden contains numerous trees and flowers from overseas.
  •   除了当地的植物之外,这座花园还有无数来自海外的花草树木。
  • In addition相当于副词,通常放在从句的句首,后面接完整的句子。例如:
  • This garden has the best collection of native plants. In addition, it contains numerous trees and flowers from overseas.
  •  这座花园有当地植物的最佳珍藏。另外,它还有无数来自海外的花草树木。
  •  许多词可以和它替换,如:additionally,furthermore,besides。
grammatical structures 1
Grammatical Structures (1)

While struggling to learn English, they lose valuable time …and science.(Para.7)

When/while + Adverbial clause

While/when + adverbial phrase

Follow the principle

if the subject of an adverbial clause introduced

by when/ while is the same with that of the

main clause, then the A.C. can be simplified into




Omit the subject

of A.C.

Change its verb into the

form of present participle

If its verb is any form of Be(am is

are), then it is often omitted

after it was changed into being.

look at this model
Look at this model

when I am rich, I will buy a car.


When being rich, I will buy a car.

When rich, I will buy a car.

learn more about this
Learn more about this
  • If the subject of an adverbial clause introduced by if/unless/once(al)though is the same with that of the main clause, meanwhile the subject is followed by “be+adj./past participle”, then this adverbial clause can be simplified into adverbial phrase.Moreover,be can be omitted after it is changed into being.
another model
Another Model

Though he was reluctant, he still went to the party


Though being reluctant, he still went to the party.

Though reluctant, he still went to the party.


Grammatical Structures (2)

These two laws was recommended that federal money be given to … a second language. (Para. 2)

Subjunctive mood should be used when subjunctive

clause is introduced by following adjectives:

requested, ordered, suggested, desired, proposed,

necessary, important, essential, vital, strange,

advisable, anxious,

more to learn
More to learn

Subjunctive mood should be used when predicative and appositive clauses are introduced by following nouns indicating order, suggestion, requirement, etc:

proposal, demand,suggestion, recommendation,etc.

Subjunctive mood should be used when objective

Clause is introduced by following verbs indicating

order, suggestion,requirement, etc.:demand,

propose, command, advise, request, etc.

structural exercises
Structural exercises





While watching TV, I like to eat snacks.

Though young, xiaozhang is very mature.

Once bored, John becomes very restless.

When still a kid, he liked that big-eyed girl

next door.





It is advisable that he see the doctor immediately.

Students propose having class outdoors./they have class outdoors.

Many parents are in favor of the move that children receive a failure education in their earlier years.

supplementary listening
Supplementary Listening

Watch the CNN video on

“Bilingual Education in California”


After-listening Discussion

What is Proposition 227 about?

Why are people protesting against it?

What are the arguments given in support of Proposition 227?

Would you be for or against a law like Proposition 227? Why?

suggested answers
Suggested answers

It bans bilingual education in California.

Because they claim it is unfair to minorities and it will have terrible results for children.

An argument in support of it is that minority children will at last get the English instruction that they really need.

reading two
Reading two


First Day

of School

warm up questions
Warm up questions

How do you feel on your first day of school?

Do you feel differently when you first come to college?

Suppose you are going to study abroad, do you think you would feel differently from now?

Predict what will happen in Antonio’s first day of school?

structure of the text






Structure of the text

Learn to write in English

Enter the school

Find companion








Meet Miss Maestas

Have lunch

Time sequence

reading task
Reading task

How does Antonio feel on his first day of school? Any details in the text to support your idea?

Excited nervous Afraid Lost

Why was school especially difficult for Antonio?

Language and culture difference


Language points

a swarm of bees a pack of wolves

a school of dolphins

A flock of sheep a herd of elephants

a moving crowd of people or a mass of animals.

Swarm n.

swarm v
Swarm v.

to move or gather in a crowd swarm into

millions of homeless people swarmed into its neighboring country during the war.

to fill with a crowd swarm with

The garden was swarmed with bees.


Fascinate v.

to hold an intense interest or attraction for

The changing vivid colors of the sunset fascinated the eye.

to be irresistibly charming or attractive.

The very style of the old house fascinates.

fascination n.fascinating adj.

Cf: attractcharm

slip sneak
Slip & sneak

Slip v: to move smoothly, secretly or unnoticed.

she slipped out of the room when no one was


I’m sorry I told them your secret — it just slipped out.

Sneak v: to go quietly and secretly so as not to be seen.

We sneaked round to the back door.

yearn for long for
yearn for & long for


Yearn and long both stress earnest,heartfelt,

often melancholy desire, as for the return of

something lost or the attainment of something

unfulfilled or beyond reach

People in Iraq yearn for an end to the war.

The child is long for a room of his own.

set in
Set in

Set in phr v

(of a disease, bad weather, etc.)to begin and probably continue.

Winter sets in early in the north.

The sky looks as if a storm may be setting in.

logical organization
Logical organization

Feature of exposition

Steps to organize an essay

feature of exposition
Feature of exposition

Clarity is most important quality of exposition. To achieve this, writers should:

  • Limit the subject or the scope of discussion
  • prepare enough materials (details or examples) to help the explanation.
  • Present the facts and views in proper order.(in order of time or logical sequence)
steps to organize
Steps to organize

1. Plan the outline clearly


Introduce the topic

give specific information of the topic


give concluding ideas about topic.



Ways of introduction

A quotation A definition

A Phenomenon An analogy

Figures or statistics

A question about the topic

Thesis statement of the topic

Relevant background and material

2. Present each part properly


Develop the body

NOTE: To arrange paragraphs in some kind of order so that one paragraph leads naturally to another to form an organic whole.

ways to organize a body
Ways to organize a body

General statement examples 总提-具体示例法

Analysis of cause and effects 因果分析法

comparison and contrast 对比法

Listing 列举法

Deduction and induction 演绎、归纳法

By time sequence 时间顺序法

By logical sequence 逻辑顺序法

Classification and division 分类法


Use topic sentence and topic paragraph

Use transitional sentence and paragraph

Use connectives


Concluding methods

To summarize the main points

Restate the information in the introduction

Link the concluding part to the introduction.

If the points are arranged in climatic sequence, the last point, which is the most important one is a good conclusion.

writing task
Writing task

Write an detailed outline of an exposition introducing one of Chinese celebrations, applying the writing techniques introduced above.