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Linguistics. A Study of English from 1066 to the present Prepared by Brenda White, Communication Arts Dept. Joplin High School, Joplin, Mo. July 2006. Topics of Study. Language and Communication History of the English Language English: Old, Middle, and Modern American English

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    1. Linguistics A Study of Englishfrom 1066 to the present Prepared by Brenda White, Communication Arts Dept. Joplin High School, Joplin, Mo. July 2006

    2. Topics of Study • Language and Communication • History of the English Language • English: Old, Middle, and Modern • American English • Ozark Dialect • Acquiring Language • Sounds and Sound Production • Do Animals Have Language? • Portfolio

    3. Language and Communication What are the characteristics of language? Terms and Definitions Be a Linguist

    4. Seven Characteristics of Language Use these to decide whether something is a language. • It can change and adapt as required. • You can speak to and be understood by others who know that language. • It relates sounds or gestures to meanings. • It can negate, ask questions, and refer to the past or future. • It is acquired without external instruction. • It is used creatively rather than in response to internal or external stimuli. • It has symbols that have discrete meanings.

    5. Terms and Definitions • Linguistics: the science that is concerned with the natures of human languages, their grammars and use • Alphabet: a series of symbols where each symbol represents a designated sound or gesture • Arbitrary: in linguistics, it describes the property of language, including sign language, whereby there is no natural or intrinsic relationship between the way a word is pronounced or signed and its meaning. (i.e., If language weren’t arbitrary, every language would have the same words for the same meanings.) • Grammar: Everything a speaker knows about a language. It includes what the speaker knows about syntax, semantics, and lexicon. • Orthography: the written form of a language; spelling

    6. Discussion, Inquiry • How are language and communication different? • Which came first and why do you think that? • How did people communicate before spoken language? • Is pointing language? Are grunts? Are drawings? Why or why not? • Is ASL a language? Why do you think that? • Who makes the rules?

    7. Types of Communication Interactional Language is used primarily to establish and maintain social relations. You attend a party and begin “small talk” to those around you. You talk about the weather, sports, etc. These subjects are fairly predictable conversational topics, and their primary purpose is to establish and maintain social bridges and relationships. Transactional Language has a much different purpose than interactional language. It is used to transmit knowledge, skills, or information. It is message-oriented because its purpose is to create a change in the listener’s knowledge. Write down an example of each type of language that you have experienced recently.

    8. Types of Communication Direct (intentional) communication deals with meaning -- statements that provide few alternative understandings: “Norm caught a 5-pound black bass.” “Sally lived in Israel for six months.” Direct communication is common and offers few challenges. Indirect (inferential) communication provides more alternative understandings. A friend is wearing one black and one brown sock. What are some possible meanings you can ascribe to this observation? Your friend is a sloppy dresser? Your friend is colorblind? Your friend dressed in the dark? Your friend has a pile of dirty clothes and had only two unmatched but clean socks in the dresser drawer? Indirect communication often involves metaphors or idioms. “You’re way off base.” “That assignment is a piece of cake.” Write down an example of each type of language that you have experienced recently.

    9. Be a Linguist:Language and Communication On the following pages you will find quotes about language and communication. Your task is to choose two of the quotes that are similar or opposed so that they can be discussed. Write a long paragraph that discusses those quotations, their meanings, their implications, their applications. Discuss them in terms of communication and/or language. Print your work. Be sure your name and hour are on the page. This goes into your Linguistics portfolio, which will be submitted at the end of the course.

    10. A few words about words • Never miss a good chance to shut up. - Anonymous • Drawing on my fine command of language, I said nothing. - Anonymous • Talk is cheap because supply exceeds demand. - Anonymous • It’s not what you tell them, it’s what they hear. - Red Auerback • Heaven, n: A place where the wicked cease from troubling you with talk of their personal affairs, and the good listen with attention while you expound your own. - Ambrose Bierce

    11. More words about words … • Language is the biggest barrier to human progress because language is an encyclopedia of ignorance. Old perceptions are frozen into language and force us to look at the world in an old-fashioned way. - Edward de Bono • There are four ways, and only four ways, in which we have contact with the world. We are evaluated and classified by these four contacts: what we do, how we look, what we say, and how we say it. - Dale Carnegie • To have another language is to possess a second soul. - Charlemagne 9. From now on, ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I will not put. - Winston Churchill

    12. More words about words … • Language is a city to the building of which every human being brought a stone. - Ralph Waldo Emerson • Be careful of your thoughts; they may become words at any moment. - Ira Gassen • Dance is the hidden language of the soul, of the body. - Martha Graham • Arguments over grammar and style are often as fierce as those over IBM versus Mac, and as fruitless as Coke versus Pepsi and boxers versus briefs. - Jack Lynch • Be sincere; be brief; be seated. - Franklin Delano Roosevelt

    13. The final words about words 15. England and America are two countries divided by a common language. - George Bernard Shaw 16. Man invented language to satisfy his deep need to complain. - Lily Tomlin 17. Numbers constitute the only universal language. - Nathanael West 18. English usage is sometimes more than mere taste, judgment and education -- sometimes it’s sheer luck, like getting across the street. - E. B. White

    14. History of the English Language Language Map Where in the world is Indo-European? Timeline of English Be a Linguist

    15. One of many languages in the world English is descended from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European Languages. By virtue of the prominence of the countries (chiefly U.S. and Britain) who speak it, English is currently the Lingua Franca. Lingua Franca refers to the language that is recognized globally and is used for international travel and international commerce. Many other countries in the world teach English to all their students as a required subject. Before English, French was the Lingua Franca.

    16. Indo-European Language Chart

    17. Germanic Stem

    18. World Map of IE Languages The nations surrounded by the red line are Indo-European-speaking nations. Many of the nations were introduced to English when they were British colonies. Some were introduced to the IE family through France or Spain, however. This is an approximate map. There are, of course, indigenous languages such as Native American, Australian aboriginal languages and others. The red border in central Europe excludes Hungary. Finland and Estonia are not IE-speaking languages, although they are surrounded by other countries who are.

    19. Using the website above, write the answers to the following questions. How many languages from this branch are extinct? How is it that Latin is technically an extinct language but is still in use? How much of Ireland speaks the Irish Gaelic language? The Hittite language was spoken in what modern country? True or False. Austrians speak Modern High German. Afrikaans is spoken chiefly in what part of Africa? Besides Denmark, Danish is spoken in what country? True or False. The boot heel of Italy speaks Modern Greek. Name three countries who once spoke now-extinct Gothic. True or False. Part of Norway speaks Icelandic. Cornish was spoken only in what country? The origin and spread of Proto-Indo-European languages is either hypothetical or substantiated. Which is it? Spanish is spoken in how many identifiable areas of the world? Which South American country speaks Portuguese? True or False. The three Frisian languages are easily understood by all speakers. Swedish is spoken in what other country’s capital? Norwegian is spoken on what island? Provencal is spoken mostly in the southern region of what country? What entire continent besides North America speaks English? Name the nine languages descended from Latin that are not extinct. Modern Greek descends from what major branch of Proto-Indo-European? Afrikaans, English, Modern High German, and Danish all descend from what main branch of Proto-Indo-European? What major branches of Proto-Indo-European are extinct? Name the path of English beginning with Proto-Indo-European. Is English more like Modern High German or Modern Low German? Indo-European Language Tree, Centum

    20. 1066: the Norman Conquestor Why We Could Be Speaking French Back in 1066, the Norman French successfully invaded England. From that time until the Normans were defeated a few hundred years later, the aristocratic class in England spoke French. The working class, however, stuck with English. Many, many new words were formed at that time, a mix between French and English. Many of our words today came from that mixing and adapting of languages. 1066 is the unofficial end of Old English and the beginning of Middle English.

    21. Timeline of the English Language The earliest known residents of the British Isles were the Celts who spoke Celtic languages -- a separate branch of the Indo-European language family tree. Over the centuries the British Isles were invaded and conquered by various people, who brought their languages and customs with them as they settled in their new lives. There is now very little Celtic influence left in English. The earliest time when we can say that English was spoken was in the 5th century CE (common era - a politically-correct term used to replace AD). FYI, “England” from “Enga Land” from “Angle Land” (Land of the Angles, a people of northern Germany). Their name lives on in the district of England named East Anglia and also in the Anglican Church.

    22. Dictionaries There are many different types of dictionaries. The ones we are most familiar with give us information about particular words. Reading a dictionary entry gives us: • Etymology • Pronunciation • Definitions • Part(s) of speech • Common usage • Type of word Oxford English Dictionary entries are somewhat different. Besides all the above information, the OED gives the complete history of the word all the way back to its first recorded use.

    23. Be A LinguistHistory of the English Language This class has access to the OED online. Choose a word. The more interesting the word, the better. Do not choose an everyday word. Your task is to find that word in the OED, and write a short report (one page or less) including all the following information about the word: original use, meaning; current use, meaning; etymology; use in a sentence with current meaning. Put this document in your Linguistics portfolio. Be sure to include your name and hour. Your word should be interesting and appropriate.

    24. English Old, Middle, and Modern Beowulf to the Internet New Words Be a Linguist

    25. Middle English

    26. English in History Old English - mid-fifth century to mid-twelfth century Old English Middle English - approximately 1066 to the mid- to late-15th century Middle English Modern English is continually changing. New Words in English

    27. Why does Language Change? There are no exact times for the end of one era of English and the beginning of another. The language gradually melded from one to the next. People didn’t wake up on New Year’s Day, 1200, and start speaking Middle English. Let’s take William Shakespeare as an example. He lived during the infancy of Modern English, and that is one thing that makes his works sometimes difficult for us understand: he is using mostly Modern English, but there is enough Middle English leftover in his word endings and sentence constructions that it sometimes throws us off. But Shakespeare didn’t sit around and wait for the language to change. He invented thousands of new words which he used in his plays. What shapes the change of one language period to another? The speakers do. New words are coined. New inventions spark new vocabulary. New people invade your country and take over. People do new things; new stuff happens. Some changes are subtle, some aren’t.

    28. HISTORICAL EVENTS New Words that have entered the language in the last 50 yearsHINT: What happened in history that might have contributed new words?Do NOT use commercial words (e.g., iPhone) TERM Integrated Circuit Software

    29. Be A LinguistOld, Middle, and Modern English Image search “Old English Manuscripts” Print the best example. Label it. Image search “Middle English Manuscripts” Print the best example. Label it. Image search “Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales” Print the best example of writing and your favorite art work. Label them. Image search “Modern English Manuscripts” and find a modern translation alongside an older type of manuscript. Print and label it. Save this document to your Linguistics portfolio.

    30. American English Dialects Pidgin and Creole Be a Grammarian Be a Linguist

    31. Dialect Vocabulary IDIOLECT – The unique characteristics of an individual speaker DIALECT – Mutually intelligible variety of a language that differs in systematic ways from other varieties DIALECT AREA – A geographic area defined by the predominant use of a particular variety of language DIALECT LEVELING – Movement toward greater uniformity or decrease in variations among dialects; regularization of dialects COMMUNICATIVE ISOLATION – Describes limited or no contact between speakers of the same language ACCENT - Characteristic of speech that conveys information about a person’s dialect; characteristic of the speech of someone who is not a native speaker

    32. Idiolect? Dialect? English speakers can talk and be understood by other English speakers, yet no two speak exactly alike. Each has their own IDIOLECT. Differences might be based on age, sex, size, speech rates, emotional state, state of health, or whether English is a first language (L1). A dialect is not an inferior or degraded form of a language. In fact, a language is a collection of dialects.

    33. How do dialects develop? Dialects develop when people who all speak one language are separated geographically or socially. Dialects develop when the linguistic changes that occur in one area do not necessarily spread to another. Dialects occur within a group, linguistic changes occur, and those changes spread and are then learned by the next generation. When a physical or social barrier exists – mountain, river, ocean, political, racial, or religious – linguistic changes do not spread easily and dialect differences are reinforced. A change that occurs in one region and fails to spread to another region gives rise to REGIONAL DIALECT. Each regional dialect has its own “character” or “flavor” Changes in grammar take place gradually and spread slowly. Change takes place over several generations of speakers. Dialect differences tend to increase proportionately to the degree of COMMUNICATIVE ISOLATION. Today, even far-flung groups are more likely to communicate than earlier in history.

    34. U.S. Dialect Regions •

    35. Dialects: the American Way By the time of the American Revolution, there were three main dialect areas in the Colonies: Northern dialect, spoken in New England and around the Hudson River; Midland dialect, spoken in Pennsylvania; and Southern dialect, spoken in areas south. The characteristic dropped r (car – cah; farm – fahm) was carried into these three dialect regions and remains today in Boston, New York, and Savannah. These regions maintained close ties to Southern England, who also had the dropped r in their dialect. As settlers came from Northern England, where they did not drop their r’s, and as westward expansion began in the United States, the dialects merged and DIALECT LEVELING occurred in the West. More waves of immigrants brought non-English speaking groups to the United States who settled in various parts of the country. Their native languages affected the dialect in that region.

    36. “A language is a dialect with an army and a navy.” – Max Weinreich Dialect? Language? The rule of thumb is that when dialects become mutually unintelligible, that is when the speakers of one dialect group can no longer understand the speakers of another dialect group, these dialects become different languages. Mutually unintelligible is not easy to characterize.---Danes (Danish), Norwegians (Norwegian) and Swedes (Swedish) can all speak and be understood, although their languages have different grammatical structures and are in different countries.---Hindi (India) and Urdu (Pakistan) are about as different as British English and American English.---On the other hand, China’s two mutually-unintelligible main languages, Mandarin and Cantonese, are often referred to as dialects since they are spoken in the same country and share an alphabet. ---How about Cajun?

    37. Which word is “correct”? Regional dialects may differ in the words people use for the same object, as illustrated by the following. Do you call it a pail or a bucket? Do you draw water from a faucet or a spigot? Do you pull down the blinds, the shades, or the curtains when it gets dark? Do you wheel the baby, or do you ride it or roll it? Is it a baby carriage, a buggy, a pram, a coach, or a cab? People take a lift to the first floor in England, but an elevator to the second floor in the United States. They get five gallons of petrol (not gas) in London; in Britain, a public school is “private” (you have to pay), and if a student showed up there wearing pants instead of trousers he would be sent home to get dressed. If you ask for a tonic in Boston you will get a drink called soda or soda-pop in Los Angeles. A freeway in Los Angeles is a thruway in New York, a parkway in New Jersey, a motorway in England, and an expressway or turnpike in other dialect areas. Language, like an alphabet, is ARBITRARY.

    38. Banned Languages: You can’t say that! Because of the belief that some languages are better or more desirable than others, from time to time languages have been banned. Cajun English and French were banned in Louisiana by practice until the 1980’s. People report being punished in school for using these languages. For many years, American Indian languages were banned in federal and state schools on reservations. A ban on speaking Korean in Korea was imposed by the Japanese during their occupation of Korea between 1910 and 1945. As recently as 2001, the New York Times reported that Singapore wanted its citizens to speak English, not Singlish, a form of English with elements of Malay, Tamil, Mandarin Chinese and other Chinese dialects. A number of years ago in France, where an academy of scholars determined what constitutes the “official French language”, they enacted a law forbidding the use of Franglais (combination of French and English).

    39. Revived Languages: Oh, yes I can! Some languages have come back from the dead or near-dead. Quebec speaks almost entirely French although the rest of Canada speaks English. Gaelic, or Irish, is making a comeback in hundreds of schools in Ireland and Northern Ireland after being nearly gone from regular use. The Academy of the Hebrew Language in Israel undertook the most massive revival of a language ever in history. They sought to resuscitate an ancient written language to serve the daily everyday needs of the people. Twenty-three lexicologists worked with the Bible and the Talmud to add new words to the language.

    40. Pidgin & Creole When people from different-speaking countries want to trade and need to communicate, they use elements of both languages and create a PIDGIN language, sometimes called a trade language. Usually, a pidgin language takes on the grammatical rules of one or the other of the two languages. Although pidgin languages are used to communicate, they are generally not good at expressing fine distinctions of meaning: “I include pidgin English … even though I am referred to in that splendid language as ‘Fella belong Mrs. Queen’.” – Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II When a pidgin language is adopted by a community, forms its own lexicon, grammatical structures and rules, and children learn it as their first language, it is called a CREOLE language.

    41. Be A Grammarian Follow the link below where you will find a website that has several articles about dialects and language. Choose one article. Print it if you need to. Identify the main purpose of the article. Identify all the main points of the article. Comment on the contents of the article. Compile your analysis in a logical, easy-to-read format.

    42. Be A Linguist Listen to the NPR report. DARE online. A portion of the Dictionary of Regional American English (DARE) is online. The majority of the dictionary is only available in print, to which we do not have access. You will be given a word/term that can be researched online. Your task is to discover and report on the word’s meaning and its origin. Tell the first known origin and the current usage, including dialect region(s) involved. Include pertinent information or interesting stories about the word. Present your material in a logical, understandable manner. This report should be logical and informative. Include it in your Linguistics portfolio.

    43. Ozark Dialect Shakespeare’s English: Appalachia to The Ozark Hills Be a Linguist

    44. Ozark Dialect Origins Who was Vance Randolph, and why did he care? Communicative Isolation is the key to understanding the development of Ozark dialect. Good luck, bad luck omens Superstitions “Hidden in the Hills”

    45. Be A LinguistOzark Dialect In pairs, you will compile a list of Ozark words that you can identify. Use family members, friends, others who might know about how it “used to sound around here.” Note the common modern word that is now used in its place, and tell whether it has changed in meaning. Present in an informative, understandable format. Each person needs his or her own copy.

    46. Acquiring Language Stages of Language Acquisition Theories of Language Acquisition Be a Linguist

    47. Stages of Language Acquisition COOING: Appears about 6 months or so. All infants coo using all the sounds from every language. Even congenitally deaf children coo. BABBLING: Appears around 9-10 months. Infants are starting to selectively use the sounds from their native language HOLOPHRASES: One-word utterances. At around 12 months, children start using words. TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH: Children start making multi-word utterances that lack function words at about 2 years of age. NORMAL SPEECH: By about 5 or 6 years of age, children have almost normal speech.

    48. Theories of Language AcquisitionNature v. Nurture: Critical Period Hypothesis; Second Language Acquisition, Universal GrammarHypothesis Theory; Imitation and Modeling Theory Hypothesis Theory: As children are exposed to language, they form hypotheses. Then, they modify language appropriately. Imitation and Modeling Theory: Children will sound like the adults around them. They will share the same accents and idioms. Adults use child-directed speech to make themselves understood to children. Motherese is child-directed speech.

    49. Theories of Language AcquisitionHypothesis Theory; Imitation and Modeling Theory;Critical Period Hypothesis; Second Language AcquisitionNature v. Nurture: NATURE Humans perceive speech sounds better than other sounds. Congenitally deaf children learn sign language at about the same rate that other children learn spoken language, and they go through roughly the same stages. Parts of the brain seem to be specialized for language processing. (Brain Scanning Techniquesand Basics of Brain Imaging) Our larynx seems to have no other purpose except to facilitate speech.