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THE WAR OF 1812. THE WAR OF 1812. * USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) defeats the British ship Guerriere. - Constitution made of iron, causing British cannonballs bounce off sides. THE WAR OF 1812. The War at Sea

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the war of 18122
THE WAR OF 1812

* USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) defeats the British ship Guerriere.

- Constitution made of iron, causing British cannonballs bounce off sides

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  • The War at Sea

1. Constitution’s triumph shocks Americans because British have much stronger navy

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2. US advantages over British:

a. Used privateers (privately

owned ships) which was cheaper than building navy ships

“Our cheapest and best navy”

~ Republican leader

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“On the ocean, and even on our own coasts, we have been insulted.”

~ London newspaper

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b. US have well-trained sailors and some well-constructed warships

c. Sea victories improve American morale

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3. British send more ships to American coast

a. British ships blockade ports

b. British capture American

ships

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  • The Canadian Border

1. Americans want to invade Canada with 3 armies

2. British help Indians defeat

American army + capture Fort

Detroit

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a. Britain now controlled most

of Great Lakes Region

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3. Oliver Hazard Perry – helps US strike back and gain control of Lake Erie

a. Battle of Lake Erie – US defeat British and force them to withdraw

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  • The Frontier War

1. The Battle of Thames - General Harrison orders cavalry charge at British forces

in southern Canada

a. British defenses break apart

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b. Tecumseh killed – his death

weakens Indian-British

relationship

c. Victory secures US border

with Canada

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2. Chief Red Eagle follows Tecumseh’s wishes of fighting US and attacks Fort Mims (Alabama)

a. Andrew Jackson and

troops fight back

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3. Battle of Horseshoe Bend –

Jackson defeats Indians

a. Indians sign treaty and give

up millions of acres of land

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D. British on the Offensive

1. British send more troops to US and attack capital

a. British set fire to White

House and force Madison to flee

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2. British try to attack Fort McHenry

but Americans refuse to surrender

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a. National Anthem written when Francis Scott Key witnessed attack on Fort McHenry

1. saw flag flying over fort when

battle began

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2. flag was still there next

morning when smoke

cleared from the battle

Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave

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  • The Battle of New Orleans
    • British want to attack New Orleans

and take control of Mississippi River

    • Jackson’s troops in New Orleans

build wall of dirt and logs

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3. Battle of New Orleans – US

defeats British

“The field was entirely covered with bodies. In some places they were lying in piles of several, one on top of the other.”

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  • Ending the War

1. Hartford Convention – gathering

of Federalists in Conn. about opposing the war with Britain

a. Some Feds wanted New England to withdraw from US

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b. Meanwhile, war ends

c. Federalists challenging power

of national govern makes them look bad

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2. Treaty of Ghent – US and Britain

end war

a. each nation returns territories they conquered

b. No solution to impressment or trade embargoes

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3. US narrowly escapes political

disaster but proud that we

stood up to Britain