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1914-1918: The World at War. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Ms. Snyder CCHS. Differing Viewpoints. “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”. Causes of the War. 1. The Alliance System.

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1914 1918 the world at war

1914-1918:The Worldat War

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S.Ms. SnyderCCHS

slide2

Differing Viewpoints

  • “Family Feud”
  • “Fall of the Eagles”
  • “The War to End All Wars”
  • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
slide4

1. The Alliance System

Triple Entente:

Triple Alliance:

slide5

Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

slide6

The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide8

2. Militarism & Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

slide11

Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

powder keg of europe
“Powder Keg” of Europe
  • Two alliance system in existence
  • French unhappiness at the loss of Alsace & Lorraine (F-P War)
  • Arms race between Germany and France
  • Naval rivalry between Britain and Germany
  • Austria and Russia competing for influence in the Balkans
  • Germany attempts to gain colonies annoying and frightening Fr., Br., R.
slide16

The Assassin:

GavriloPrincip

slide17

Four Steps to War

#1

Austria Declares War against Serbia – July 28, 1914

a july 5 the blank check

Still Part of Step #1

A. July 5 – The Blank Check

Pay to A-H

“You can rely on us”

From G.

b july 23 the ultimatum
B. July 23 – The Ultimatum

If you strike my friend, I’ll..

If you hit him, I’ll…

Hi there, if you don’t…

If you hit that little feller, I’ll…

If you make a move, I’ll

If you touch me, I’ll…

France

Great Britain

Germany

Russia

Austria

Serbia

c july 25 serbia sends a reply and rejects part of the ultimatum
C.July 25 –Serbia sends a reply and rejects part of the ultimatum

Russia

The sentence that caused a war

6.   The [Serbian] Government considers it its duty as a matter of course to begin an investigation against all those persons who have participated in the outrage of June 28th and who are in its territory.   As far as the cooperation in this investigation of specially delegated officials of the [Austro-Hungarian] Government is concerned, this cannot be accepted, as this is a violation of the constitution and of criminal procedure. --Serbian Response to the Ultimatum, 25 July, 1914

Serbia

Austria

The Power Behind Austria (at the ultimatum steps). “I don’t quite like his attitude. Somebody Must be backing him.”

d july 28 a h declares war
D. July 28 – A-H Declares War
  • Interestingly, the Kaiser thought the Serbs reply was SO conciliatory, that after reading it, he wrote: “the reply amounted to a capitulation in the humblest style, and with it there disappeared all reason for war.”

Austrians look unfair, unreasonable, and war-mad to rest of the world

slide22
Russia Mobilizes

A. Willy-Nicky Letters July 29, 1914 An unjust war has been declared on a weak country. The anger in Russia shared fully by me is enormous. I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European war, I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far.-Nicky (July 29, 1914, telegram)

Four Steps to War

#2

Kaiser Wilhem II Tsar Nicholas II

slide23
B. Despite the correspondence with Wilhelm, Nicholas begins a partial mobilization - July 29, 1914

Russia begins general mobilization –Generals can’t mobilize against A-H without mobilizing against Germany too! –July 30-31, 1914

Still Step #2

slide24

Four Steps to War

#3

Schlieffen Plan

  • General Alfred von Schlieffen
  • Deal with a potential 2-Front War
  • France is weak => Defeat 1st
  • 90% of the German Army
  • Based on assumption that Russia would be slow to mobilize
slide26

Still Step #3

Wilhelm needed to know France’s Plan

  • Aid Russia? Or Not?
  • Germany issues Russia and France and ultimatum

July 31, 1914

slide27

Still Step #3

A. Russian Ultimatum

Demobilize– get off the German border

B.French Ultimatum

Stay neutral – don’t get involved

slide28

Still Step #3

C.The problem with the Schlieffen Plan

  • Requires Germany to invade through neutral Belgium to get to Paris quickly

Belgium

This is a huge risk

slide29

Still Step #3

C.The problem with the Schlieffen Plan continued

  • Treaty of London 1839 – Britain and Prussia
  • Guaranteed Belgian neutrality
  • But, there’s no Plan B
  • Russia is mobilizing too fast
slide33

Four Steps to War

#4

Englandjoins in

  • German gamble - Belgium
  • Britain upholds Treaty of 1839

“The greatest war of modern times, and perhaps in the whole history of the human race, was begun by Germany using the crime of a schoolboy as an excuse” The Great War -the Standard History (1914)[A British patriotic magazine published weekly]

slide35
“The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.” (Sir Edward Grey)
slide38

Mobilization

  • Home by Christmas!
  • No major war in 50 years!
  • Nationalism!

It's a long way to Tipperary,

It's a long way to go;

It's a long way to Tipperary,

To the sweetest girl I know!

Goodbye, Piccadilly,

Farewell, Leicester Square,

It's a long, long way to Tipperary,

But my heart's right there!

slide41

Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

Austro-Hungarians

slide56

Spies

  • “Mata Hari”
  • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
  • German Spy!
slide61

German Poster

Think of Your Children!

slide64

The Western Front

  • Germany, France, Britain and Belgium
  • 475 miles long from Switzerland to North Sea
slide65

The Western Front

  • “Race to the Sea”
    • Each side trying to outflank the other
  • War of Attrition = a struggle in which you harm your opponent in a lot of small ways, so that they become gradually weaker
slide67
600 Taxis
  • Allied counter-attack
  • Prevented fall of Paris
  • Forced German retreat
  • Schlieffen Plan isn’t going to work
  • Set the stage for “trench warfare”
slide70

Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land”

slide71

Verdun – February, 1916

  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
slide72

The Somme – July, 1916

  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
slide84

Fighting in Africa

Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]

British Sikh Mountain Gunners

slide85

Fighting in Africa

3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

slide86

Fighting in Salonika, Greece

French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916

slide97

The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

slide98

The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

slide102

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

slide103

Poison Gas

Machine Gun

slide111

1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies

50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

slide112

11 a.m., November 11, 1918

The Armistice is Signed!

slide116

Turkish Genocide Against Armenians

A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!