The Cold War. Communism vs Capitalism USSR vs US Us vs Them. Chapter 22 Sec. 1. The Cold War Chapter 22 Sec. 1 . Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990. The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.
Communism vs Capitalism
USSR vs US
Us vs Them
Chapter 22 Sec. 1
Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990.
The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.
TWO Differing Goals:
The United State’s Goals- Democracy, free enterprise & economic growth would lead to peaceful future in post war world.
The Soviet Union’s Goals: keep Germany weak economically & militarily, communism was superior to capitalism= spread communism.
CHURCHILL, TRUMAN, AND STALIN
DECIDE HOW TO DEAL WITH GERMANY AND JAPAN
* Truman hinted that the US had developed a new powerful weapon (atomic bomb).
"A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories. . . . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
Churchill’s main points were that there should be a US/UK agreement within the framework of the U.N. to resist and deter any disturbances to world peace and that Stalin wants "not war but the fruits of war”, and if the allies stay strong and united they can counter any Soviet threat
Chapter 22 Sec. 2
Result- Soviet’s withdrew with promise of a Iranian-Soviet oil company.
FIGHTING AGAINST COMMUNISTS IN GREECE
“To aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”
EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN
HAMBURG, 1952, AFTER THE MARSHALL PLAN
ON MAY 14TH 1948 ISRAEL DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND FIVE ARAB STATES IMMEDIATELY INVADED WITH THE GOAL OF DESTROYING THE NEWLY CREATED JEWISH STATE. THEY WERE DEFEATED BY ISRAEL
MUFTI AND HITLER DURING THE WW II
The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini stated, “I declare a holy war, my Moslem brothers! Murder the Jews! Murder them all!"
BECAUSE OF THE 1948 ARAB ISRAELI WAR SOME 500,000 ARABS FLED ISRAEL AND MANY REMAIN REFUGEES TODAY HOPING TO RETURN TO THEIR FORMER HOMES. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT AS MANY AS 800,000 JEWS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE ARAB COUNTRIES DURING THE 1940’S AND 50’S. MOST OF THESE REFUGEES WERE ABSORBED INTO ISRAEL.
THE FIRST US HYDROGEN BOMB WAS EXPLODED IN NOVEMBER OF1952. THE USSR EXPLODED ONE IN 1953.
North Koreans pushed the South Korean and U.N. armies all the way to Pusan in the south
Macarthur made a brilliant Invasion at Inchon which pushed the North Koreans back over the border
China then invaded & pushed the UN army back to the 38th parallel
1951- peace negotiations began
Armistice signed July 1953 (President Eisenhower)-hinted use of bomb against China
33,600 US soldiers died
Led to US military buildup
Chapter 22 Section 3
Loyalty Review Program (1947-1951)
Formed in1938 to investigate Communists & Fascists in the US.
The Committee investigated communists & those who “sympathized” with them.
Richard Nixon - member of the committee (1948-1949)
Hollywood on Trial- HUAC questioned people in the movie industry about communist activities.
“The Hollywood Ten”- used 5th Amendment to refuse to testify.
Blacklists- people who refused to cooperate were denied jobs.
Alger Hiss (former member of FDR’s staff)- accused of being a communist by (Whittaker Chambers).
Hiss denied being a communist
Pumpkin Papers- seemed to prove that Hiss had lied
Hiss was found guilty of perjury
Truman will not run again: Foreign Policy not working, USSR had the bomb, China fallen to communism, US troops in Korea.
Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson
Republicans nominated Dwight D.Eisenhower
Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of USSR
USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBM
FIRST US ATLAS ICBM
ON JANUARY 1, 1959 REVOLUTION IN CUBA SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHREW THE Pro-US GOVERNMENT. ON JANUARY 6THFIDEL CASTRO BECAME PREMIER AND LATER COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF CUBA. MANY CUBANS FLEE TO THE U.S.
A US U-2 RECONNAISSANCE (SPY) PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER THE SOVIET UNION
U-2 Plane was piloted by Garry Powers