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The Cold War. Cold War. a conflict between countries with no military action and usually without breaking off relations No actual combat Developed after World War II Communism vs. Democracy. Communism.

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cold war
Cold War
  • a conflict between countries with no military action and usually without breaking off relations
  • No actual combat
  • Developed after World War II
  • Communism vs. Democracy
communism
Communism
  • Webster: “a system of government in which goods are owned by the government and are available to all as needed”
  • No private property
  • Government owns everything
  • No class structure
  • Everyone is equal
  • No religion
  • Absolute power

U.S.S.R

democracy
Democracy
  • Majority rule
  • Civil Rights
  • Anyone can be anything
  • Capitalism – an economic system characterized by private ownership of goods
  • Religious freedom
  • Due process of law

U.S.A

the beginning of the cold war
The Beginning of The Cold War
  • Yalta Conference
  • February 1945
  • The “Big Three” – Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin
  • Agree to free elections for all countries formerly under Nazi rule
  • Stalin disagrees
potsdam conference
Potsdam Conference
  • Potsdam, Germany July 1945
  • New President Harry Truman, Clement Attlee, Joseph Stalin
  • Stalin wants reparations from Germany
  • Truman and Attlee disagree
  • Splits Eastern and Western Europe
  • No free elections in Eastern Europe
need to stop communism
Need to Stop Communism!!!

Truman Doctrine

  • Harry Truman
  • March 1947
  • Pledged to fight the spread of Communism
  • Gave financial and military assistance to Greece and Turkey
  • Containment
marshall plan
Marshall Plan
  • Secretary of State George C. Marshall
  • June 1947
  • Between 1948 and 1950, U.S. gave $13 billion to help rebuild Europe
  • Helped spread Democracy
berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift
  • Berlin, Germany seized by Soviets
  • Blocked all ground entries and exits
  • U.S. and other western nations flew over blockades
  • 1948-1949
  • May 1949 Stalin lifted blockades
slide11
NATO
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Formed in 1949 to stop the spread of communism
  • U.S., Canada, 10 West European Countries
  • Agreed to help each other militarily if needed
slide12

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952: Greece & Turkey
  • 1955: West Germany
  • 1983: Spain
slide13
Soviet Union felt NATO, Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine were threats
  • Stalin died in 1953
  • Nikita Khrushchev became leader of Soviet Union
  • Formed Warsaw Pact in 1955 with other Communist countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia)
  • Soviets built Berlin Wall in 1961
slide14

Warsaw Pact (1955)

  • U. S. S. R.
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • East Germany
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Rumania
slide16

The Arms Race

  • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.
  • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
  • Each side began to stockpile vast amounts of Nuclear weapons to counter the other.
slide17

1949 – Fall of China

  • In June, Chiang Kai-shek, the Nationalist leader, was defeated by Mao
    • Chiang flees to island of Taiwan
  • Oct 1, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China (PRC)
  • Dec 1949, Mao goes to Moscow,
    • negotiates the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance.
the korean war
The Korean War
  • NATO forces (multi-national body of troops)
  • Led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur
  • Drove Koreans back to the Yalu River
  • Chinese troops entered the war and drove back NATO forces to the 38th Parallel
  • The Korean War is still officially ongoing
a lesson from korea domino theory
A Lesson from Korea: Domino Theory
  • 1954
  • Eisenhower compared the spread of Communism in Asia to falling dominos
  • He lost China  Korea under siege by Socialist forces
  • Later would use this idea to commit troops to Vietnam
slide21

1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

  • North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on the USS Mattox in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2.
  • Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    • granted President Johnson authority to send U.S. troops to South Vietnam.
the space race another scare
The Space Race: Another Scare

Sputnik

  • On October 4 1958, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth.
  • In 1958, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the space race is in full gear.
  • April 1961 Yuri Gagarin, a Russian cosmonaut becomes the first human in space
a race to the moon
A Race to the Moon
  • After Gagarin, the next goal of Russia and the US was to be the first to the Moon
  • July 1969 US becomes the first country to land men on the moon
    • Apollo 11
      • Neil Armstrong = First human on the Moon
slide25

1961 - Bay of Pigs

  • U.S.-organized invasion force of 1,400 Cuban exiles is defeated by Castro's government forces.
  • Trained and equipped by the US, the invaders surrender on April 20 after three days of fighting.
  • Kennedy takes full responsibility for the disaster.

Captured Cubans

slide26

1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis

  • After Bay of Pigs invasion, the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba on October 22 until the Soviet Union removed its missiles.
  • On October 28, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles
  • Crisis was the most dangerous point of the Cold War
where are they now
Where are they now?
  • Vietnam – Socialist Republic and led by Nguyễn Minh Triết
  • Cuba – Socialist Republic led by Raul Castro
  • Russian Federation – Semi-Presidential Republic led by Vladimir Putin
  • Korea- still the same
  • Germany – United Republic led by Angela Merkel