The Cold War. The Cold War- Foreign Affairs from 1945- 1980s. Do Realize…. US and USSR were allies during WWII- but, we didn’t really trust each other Remember they were communists and we had that fear of them… We defeated Nazi Germany- so our alliance was technically over
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Do Realize… • US and USSR wereallies during WWII- but, we didn’t really trust each other • Remember they were communists and we had that fear of them… • We defeated Nazi Germany- so our alliance was technically over • Power shift! US and USSR emerge WWII as superpowers- strongest militarily, economically, and politically • AND imperialism is over for the big nations as many colonies gain independence
In this Corner • The US represented the democracy- free elections, religious and economic freedom, private property, respect, differences
In this Corner • The Soviet Union represented communism- dictatorship, no individual rights, no private property, no freedoms- • If you spoke out against the government, you risked imprisonment and death
Post WWII Goals Soviet Union (USSR) United States Contain communism (containment policy, domino theory) Keep trading partners- reconstruct Europe Build Military • Economic Rehab • Military Defense
Arms Race • Because both the USSR and the US wanted to build their military and self-defense systems, this led to a nuclear arms race between the two nations.
After WWII • USSR had taken over a lot of Eastern Europe while they had pushed Hitler back • They would make Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the Eastern half of Germany their satellite states • Satellite states mean that they are technically independent but are basically controlled by another country
US vs. Satellite States • Truman wanted Stalin to leave these countries, let them hold free elections, and rule themselves • We also wanted to not punish Germany (like we had done after WWI)- Stalin however, wanted to weaken them more
After WWII • Germany divided into 4 (really into 2: free and communist) • Berlin is the capital and was fought over who should have control- so it was split too • Into West and East
Domino Theory and Containment • At the end of WWII, the US adopted a policy of containment to keep communism from spreading (keep it where it is) • The domino theory also relates to communism…. • If one nation becomes communist, then other nations surrounding that nation will become communist as well • If one falls, they all fall • That’s why it’s so important to try to contain communism- we don’t want communism to take control
Iron Curtain • Winston Churchill (Britain) nicknamed the area that Stalin was exerting control had been blocked off from the rest of the world by an iron curtain • Behind that curtain was oppression and a controlling government • On the western side of the wall was freedom and rights
Truman • After WWII there were a few weak countries, in particular Greece and Turkey, that Stalin was targeting • Congress passed the Truman Doctrine which gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey in order to prevent communist from overthrowing their gov’ts. • The idea behind this: If people have jobs and money, they are happy and won’t want change in the government
Marshall Plan • Extension of the Truman Plan and applied to any Western European country. • It provided programs for farmers, fuel to heat homes and factories, money to invest in companies • Helped restore the economies of important US trade partners (Britain, W. Germany, France) • Prevented the spread of communism to W. Europe • We did offer help to satellite countries but Stalin wouldn’t accept it
Berlin Blockade • West Berlin- supported by Britain, US, France = successful- good business, $, rebuilding • East Berlin- controlled by USSR- not so good • Stalin wants to gain all of Berlin • Stalin cuts power and communication and transportation into West Berlin • Stalin was hoping that by cutting off supplies, the allies would let him control the rest of the city
Airlift (So tricky!) • However, the US and Britain conducted the Berlin Airlift • A plan left just about one a minute from different airports to drop food, fuel, candy, and medicine into Berlin for almost a year
NATO • North Atlantic Treaty Organization- try to stop Soviet expansion into Western Europe • Soviets responded to NATO with its own military alliance of Soviet-bloc E. European nations – Warsaw Pact • Members of each alliance pledge to defend one another if one was attacked
The world divides between NATO and the Warsaw Pact Choose Teams
Latin America • Bay of Pigs Invasion (Kennedy) • Cuban Missile Crisis (Kennedy) • Dominican Republic (Johnson) • Chile (Nixon) • Nicaragua (Reagan) • Grenada (Reagan) • Panama (G. H. W. Bush)
China • Chinese Civil War • Chiang Kai-shek (anti-communist) vs. Mao Zedong (communist) • Mao and the communists gain a lot of popularity and win the civil war • China “falls” to communism
Korea • Korea was once controlled by Japan • After WWII, Korea was divided into two independent countries by the US and USSR • Division: 38th Parallel • N. Korea: communistgov’t with help from Soviets • S. Korea: non-communist with help from US
Korea • June 1950: N. Korea invades S. Korea, took over Seoul (capital city) • US and UN order American troops still in Japan to move to S. Korea to help fight • Soldiers not well equipped or prepared for conditions of Korea
Korea • Timeline of Conflict • Sept. 1950: Gen. MacArthur leads UN troops on offensive to fight back • Nov. 1950: Chinese enter war and attack. UN and SK forces retreat • Jan. 1951: UN forces push communists back to 38th parallel • June 1951: Cease-fire signed; 38th parallel border of N and S Korea
Korea- Lasting Effects • There was no victory in the Korean War • 37,000 Americans killed • Relations with China worsened • Relations with Japan improved • Future presidents send military into combat without Congressional approval
Vietnam (1954-1973) • Once a colony of France • Conquered by Japan during WWII • Ho Chi Minh (Vietnamese independence leader) asked the US and UN for recognition; they said no; China and USSR did • France tried crushing opposition with US help, but weren’t strong enough • People scared the rest of Southeast Asia would “turn and fall” to communism (domino theory)
Vietnam • Vietnam splits • Continuous fighting between communists (Viet Minh- N) and non-communists (US/UN- S) • Communist forces in the South (Vietcong) fought against the US/UN
Vietnam- American Responses at Home • The draft reinstated again • Impact of TV • Protests in favor and opposed to the war break out all over the country • Kent State • Marches in Washington
Vietnam- End and Legacy • Fighting continued with no real end in sight • US/UN wasn’t prepared to fight in the jungles of Vietnam- conditions were so different than anything before • Finally, January 23, 1973, agreement was announced and troops were to withdraw (Fall of Saigon) • 2 million Vietnamese and 56,000 Americans killed
Key Concepts • Conflicting US and Soviet postwar objectives played a significant role in creating the tensions between the two superpowers that led to the Cold War. • The US sought to contain the spread of communism in Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa • The second red scare (McCarthyism) affected the US domestically as the public was led to believe that there were communists seeking to undermine American institutions.
Key Concepts Continued • The US succeeded in containing communism in Europe. • The United States was unable to contain the spread of communism to China but did so in South Korea. • The Vietnam War seriously divided the American people and showed the limitations of the containment policy. • The collapse of the Soviet Union transformed international affairs.
Second Red Scare: McCarthyism • HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) • Sen. Joseph McCarthy (R, Wisconsin) • Movie Industry • Witch hunt • Army trials (his downfall)