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Chapter Nine: Charlemagne and the Rise of Medieval Culture. Culture and Values, 7 th . Ed. Cunningham and Reich. Charlemagne: Ruler and Diplomat. Papal Coronation Leo III, Christmas 800 Revival of Western Roman Empire Feudal Administration Legal decrees Bureaucratic system Literacy

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chapter nine charlemagne and the rise of medieval culture

Chapter Nine:Charlemagne and the Rise of Medieval Culture

Culture and Values, 7th. Ed.

Cunningham and Reich

charlemagne ruler and diplomat
Charlemagne: Ruler and Diplomat
  • Papal Coronation
    • Leo III, Christmas 800
    • Revival of Western Roman Empire
  • Feudal Administration
    • Legal decrees
    • Bureaucratic system
    • Literacy
  • Foreign Relations
    • Byzantines, Muslims
charlemagne economic developments
Charlemagne: Economic Developments
  • Stabilized the currency
    • Denier
  • Trade Fairs
  • Jewish merchants
  • Trade Routes
  • Import / Export Relationships
    • Iron Broadswords
learning in the time of charlemagne
Learning in the Time of Charlemagne
  • “Palace School” at Aachen
  • Scholar-teachers
  • Curriculum
    • Trivium, quadrivium
    • Mastery of texts
  • Text reform
    • Literary revival = Liturgical revival
  • Literacy as prerequisite for worship
learning in the time of charlemagne1
Learning in the Time of Charlemagne
  • Alcuin of York
    • Sacramentary
    • Corrected errors in the Vulgate Bible
    • Developed Frankish school system
  • Literacy and Women
    • Dhouda
    • Illuminated manuscripts
benedictine monasticism
Benedictine Monasticism
  • Early monasticism
    • Varying monastic lifestyles
    • No predominate rule
  • The Rule of St. Benedict
    • “Magna Carta of monasticism”
    • Poverty, stability, obedience, chastity
    • Balance of prayer, work, and study
    • Horarium
women and the monastic life
Women and the Monastic Life
  • Scholastica (d. 543)
    • St. Benedict’s sister
  • Brigid of Ireland (d. 525)
  • Hilda, abbess of Whitby (614-680)
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
    • Writer, painter, illustrator, musician, critic, preacher
    • Scivias, Physica, Causae et Curae, Symphonia, Ordo Virtutum
monasticism and gregorian chant
Monasticism and Gregorian Chant
  • Monasteries and Opus Dei
    • Centrality of liturgy
    • Lectio divina
  • Development of sacred music
    • Gregorian Chant
    • Ambrosian music
    • Mozarabic chant
    • Frankish chant
monasticism and gregorian chant1
Monasticism and Gregorian Chant
  • Gregorian chant and Carolingian reform
  • Gregorian characteristics
    • Monophonic
    • Melismatic
    • Acapella
    • Cantus planus
    • neums
liturgical music and the rise of drama
Liturgical Music and the Rise of Drama
  • The Liturgical Trope
    • Verbal elaborations of textual content
    • Added to the long melismas
    • Aid in memorization
    • Origin of drama in the West
      • Quem Quæritis
the morality play everyman
The Morality Play: Everyman
  • Links liturgical and secular drama
  • Allegorical, moralistic
    • Instructs for moral conversion
  • Religious themes
    • Life as a pilgrimage
    • The inevitability of death (memento mori)
    • Faith vs. Free Will
  • Liturgical overtones
nonliturgical drama
Nonliturgical Drama
  • Hroswitha (d. 1000)
    • Wrote in Latin
    • Roman stylistic influences
    • Poetry, legends, plays
      • Theophilus
      • The Conversion of the Harlot Thaïs
    • Heavily moralistic to educate and convert
the legend of charlemagne song of roland
The Legend of Charlemagne:Song of Roland
  • Charlemagne canonized 1165
    • Reliquaries and commemoratives
  • Epic poem
    • Charlemagne’s battle with the Basques (778)
    • Chansons de geste, chansons d’histoire
  • Oral tradition, jongleurs
  • Military and religious ideals
    • 11th c. martial virtues and chivalric code
  • Anti-Muslim bias
the visual arts the illuminated book
The Visual Arts:The Illuminated Book
  • Carolingian manuscripts on parchment
  • Gospel Book of Charlemagne
    • Roman, Byzantine, Celtic styles
  • Utrecht Psalter
    • Masterpiece of the Carolingian Renaissance
  • Dagulf Psalter
    • Carved ivory book covers
  • Carolingian miniscule
charlemagne s palace at aachen
Charlemagne’s Palace at Aachen
  • Kingdom modeled on ancient Rome
  • Palace
    • Large royal hall, lavishly decorated
    • Joined to chapel by a long gallery
  • Chapel
    • Church of San Vitale (Ravenna) as model
    • Altar to the Savior (liturgical services)
    • Chapel to the Virgin (reliquary)
  • Charlemagne’s Throne
    • “…this most wise Solomon.”
the carolingian monastery
The Carolingian Monastery
  • Monastery as “miniature civic center”
    • Complexity of function and design
    • Center of life for rural populations
  • Saint Gall plan
    • Basilica style
    • Designed to house 120 monks, 170 serfs
the romanesque style
The Romanesque Style
  • Large, “Roman-looking” architecture
  • Influenced by travel, expansion
    • Pilgrimages
  • Heavy stone arches
    • Larger, more spacious interiors
    • Fireproof stone and masonry roofs
    • Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse
the romanesque style1
The Romanesque Style
  • Exterior decoration (sculpture)
    • Lack of interior light
    • Portal (doorway)
    • Jamb, capital, trumeau
    • Tympanum (mandorla, archivolts)
      • Church of Sainte Madeleine at Vézelay
chapter nine discussion questions
Chapter Nine: Discussion Questions
  • Explain the function of the Song of Roland as both religious and political propaganda during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. What values are extolled within the text that would serve religious and political leaders as they shape their culture? Do we, as a culture, subscribe to these same values today? Why or why not?
  • Why was Charlemagne so interested in developing literacy? Explain his motives and methods for establishing schools and supporting scholars.
  • Describe the role of the liturgical trope in the development of drama in the West. For example, how does one begin with the Quem Quæritis trope and arrive at Everyman?Explain the evolution of the art form.