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International Marketing 15 th edition . Chapter 3 History and Geography: The Foundations of Culture. Philip R. Cateora , Mary C. Gilly , and John L. Graham. Introduction. To understand a society’s actions and its points of view, you need to appreciate:

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International Marketing

15th edition

Chapter 3

History and Geography:

The Foundations of Culture

Philip R. Cateora, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. Graham

introduction
Introduction
  • To understand a society’s actions and its points of view, you need to appreciate:
    • The influence of historical events
    • The geographical uniqueness to which a culture has had to adapt
  • Culture can be defined as society's accepted basis for responding to external and internal events
  • To interpret a culture’s behavior and attitudes, a marketer must have some idea of a country’s history and geography

Roy Philip

history perspective in global business
History Perspective in Global Business
  • History helps define a nation’s mission
    • How it perceives its neighbors
    • How it perceives itself
    • Its place in the world
  • Insights into history are important for understanding current attitudes
  • It is necessary to study culture as it is now as well as to understand culture as it was
    • A country’s history

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geography and global markets
Geography and Global Markets
  • Geography – an element of the uncontrollable environment that confronts every marketer
    • Affects a society’s culture and economy
    • Physical makeup limits a nation’s ability to supply its people’s needs

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climate and topography
Climate and Topography
  • Altitude, humidity, and temperature extremes
    • South America
    • British resistance of the English Channel
    • Trade through the Alps

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geography nature and economic growth
Geography, Nature and Economic Growth
  • As countries prosper, natural barriers are overcome
  • Environmental issues
    • Disruption of ecosystems
    • Relocation of people
    • Inadequate hazardous waste management
    • Industrial pollution

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social responsibility and environmental management
Social Responsibility and Environmental Management
  • Environmental protection is not an optional extra
  • Pollution is on the verge of getting completely out of control
  • China has 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities
  • Critical issue: the disposal of hazardous waste
  • Sustainable development
  • http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/0,28757,1661031,00.html
  • http://www.forbes.com/2006/03/21/americas-most-polluted-cities-cx_rm_0321pollute.html

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resources 1 of 2
Resources (1 of 2)
  • The availability of minerals and the ability to generate energy are the foundations of modern technology
  • The principal supplements to human energy
    • Animals
    • Wood
    • Fossil fuel
    • Nuclear power
    • Ocean tides
    • Geothermal power
    • The sun

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resources 2 of 2
Resources (2 of 2)
  • United States in perspective
    • 1942 – nearly self-sufficient
    • 1950 – major importer
    • 1973-2000 – increased dependency from 36% to 66%
    • Mid-2000’s – predicted to be importing more than 70% of needs
  • The location, quality, and availability of resources will affect the pattern of world economic development and trade well into the 21st century

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dynamics of global population trends
Dynamics of GlobalPopulation Trends
  • Global population trends determine today’s demand for goods
    • Rural/urban population shifts
    • Rates of growth
    • Age levels
    • Population control
  • Changes in population will profoundly affect future demand
  • The most important deterrent to population control is cultural attitudes about the importance of large families

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controlling population growth
Controlling Population Growth
  • Procreation is one of the most culturally sensitive uncontrollable factors
  • Perhaps the most important deterrent to population control is cultural attitudes about the importance of large families
  • Family planning and all that it entails is by far the most universal means governments use to control birthrates, but some economists believe that a decline in the fertility rate is a function of economic prosperity and will come only with economic development

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rural urban migration
Rural/Urban Migration
  • Result of a desire for greater access to:
    • Sources of education
    • Health care
    • Improved job opportunities

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population decline and aging
Population Decline and Aging
  • Population growth in many countries has dropped below the rate necessary to maintain present levels
  • A nation needs a fertility rate of about 2.1 children per woman
  • Not one major country has sufficient internal population growth to maintain itself

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summary
Summary
  • A prospective international marketer should be reasonably familiar with the world, its climate, and topographic differences
  • Geographic hurdles must be recognized as having a direct effect on marketing and the related activities of communications and distribution

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