The War Background • Throughout history England and France have been constantly at battle with one another • During this time Canada was a British Colony • The United States had a good trading relationship with France, but their relationship with England had deteriorated
Outbreak of the War • On June 19th, 1812 President Madison of the USA declared war against Britain. • They fought between the border of the USA and Upper (Ontario) & Lower (Quebec) Canada.
President Madison and others flee the British www.napoleonguide.com/pixs_dcburns.htm
The Northern Frontier www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/amh/amh-06.htm
British Blockade • The fight was on both land and at sea • Although the USA were successful in smaller battles at sea; the British were able to set up a blockade close to Delaware and Chesapeake Rivers, which prevented the USA from trading with Europe. • This is when the USA really started to attack Canada.
Area of Blockade www.pride2.org/NewPrideSite/MD/Logs/Log10.html
Seizure of American Sailors by the British www.sw19j.com/images/War_of_1812_Seizure.jpg
Blacks Participating in the War • Most of the Blacks joined the British side because the British promised freedom, equality & land in Canada to all American Blacks who fought against the USA. • Thousands of blacks volunteered, particularly the Blacks from Chesapeake Bay area.
The British Slave Trade • The British were not happy with the slave trade and they freed many American slaves after they won battles. • Many slaves also ran away on their own and joined the British • Americans thought that runaways were supplying British with intelligence on American military activities.
William Hammond, an officer of the Royal Marines, trained the slaves in combat. They were known as the Colonial Marines. • Slaves proved they could fight. • The black soldiers knew the information needed to fight the Americans, such as they knew where to go. • Later the Colonial Marines joined with the Second Battalion, forming a Third Battalion called The Royal and Colonial Marines
The Arrival of the Chesapeake Blacks to NS • When the war ended, nearly 2,000 Black refugees arrived in NS. They came between 1812 and 1815. • As part of the peace agreement in 1814, the British gave the United States £250,000 (app. 1 million dollars US) in compensation for the slaves they lost.
After the war, any ship arriving in Halifax had refugees. • Many of the Refugees fled to NS to find freedom because if they stayed in the USA they would have been put back into slavery. • Once they arrived, they were allowed to seek jobs, which were relatively easy to find in NS after the war. • However, they were not as lucky the following year.
In 1815, the economy in NS dropped and the first to lose their jobs were the Refugees. • They were unable to support themselves and had to rely on government rations. • There was also an outbreak of smallpox • The government helped with the smallpox, but they did not want any more Refugees to come to NS.
Settlements in NS • Preston and Hammonds Plains were chosen as the sites for the major settlements. These were isolated communities • Others were Refugee Hill (Halifax), Cobequid Road and many more… • In Preston, they were close to the Halifax market to sell goods, but a lot of the land was too small and barren • They set up people to construct cabins for the town. They had 500 settlers and most of the homes were poor quality.
Preston & Hammonds Plains http://www.cpa.ednet.ns.ca/index_5.html www.gov.ns.ca/nsarm/virtual/africanns/ch4.asp
Lord Dalhousie, the Lieutenant-Governor of NS, encouraged the Refugees to clear their land, by offering them seeds for potatoes, cabbage and turnip. • The former slaves found it difficult to adjust to the NS harsh winters, as they were from the south. • They suffered from many illnesses, such as colds, flu and pneumonia • Also, the cold caused many crops to fail and they had to go the government for assistance. • They felt trapped in NS, because they could not leave as they feared being put back into slavery
Emigration to Trinidad • In 1821, the government had sent app. 100 Refugees to Trinidad, where they would not be put back into slavery. • Some had volunteered and some were sent due to an outbreak of scarlet fever in Hammonds Plains.
Those who Stayed • Those who stayed kept farming and sold their products in the Halifax market • Many women in Hammonds Plains sold crafts in Halifax • Others remained as unskilled labourers
Hammonds Plains • Hammonds Plains was named after the Lieutenant Governor, Sir Andrew Snape Hammond (Hammond). • After the war of 1812 roughly 500 Black people settled in Hammonds Plains.
http://museum.gov.ns.ca/blackloyalists/18001900/Places1800/hammonds.htmhttp://museum.gov.ns.ca/blackloyalists/18001900/Places1800/hammonds.htm The photo is of a family from Upper Hammonds Plains going to market.
Features of Hammonds Plains • One of the most important features of the Hammonds Plains settlement was the Pockwock Lake. • The lake was named by the Micmac Indians. The name came from an Indian word meaning ‘ the place where you can go no further.’ This was because the Pockwock road ended at the lake. • There was a 46 million dollar water system put in place. The water system was made to blend in with the wildlife and it’s surroundings while still supplying drinkable water for the community.
Pockwock lakes.chebucto.org/.../POCKWOCK/pockwock.html : www.mitchelmore-engineering.com/default.asp?m...
Churches in Hammonds Plains • The Emmanuel Baptist church was one of the first churches in Hammonds Plains. Rev. Burton was a Baptist and he helped in opening the church in Hammonds Plains. • The only other Baptist church at the time was in Halifax and did not welcome Black people. • Rev. Burton made sure that Blacks felt welcome and accepted to the Emmanuel Baptist.
Emmanuel Baptist Church http://www.ebchurch.ca/history.php
http://www.ebchurch.ca/history.php • The new Emmanuel Baptist Church was opened up in August of 2005, in Upper Hammonds Plains. • The current pastor is Lenny Anderson.
Rev. Richard Preston(1790-1861) • Preston escaped slavery and came to Canada in search of his mother in 1816. • He was a leading figure in helping to set up 11 Baptist churches in Nova Scotia and encouraged church members to press for changes that would make their lives easier.
Affectionately called "Father Preston" by his congregation • Trained as a Baptist minister in England. • Met many of the great liberals who were leading voices in the Abolition Debates • These debates led to the Slavery Abolition Act passed by the British Parliament in 1833.
Upon his return to Nova Scotia, he became President of the Abolitionists in Halifax, • One of Richard Preston’s greatest accomplishments was the creation of the African United Baptist Association in 1854. • The Association is made up of representatives from 12 Black Baptist Churches in Nova Scotia and has grown to become one of the most important African Canadian community groups in the history of Nova Scotia.
Lucasville • Lucasville is over 250 years old • William Oliver was given a large amount of land that is passed down from generation to generation • Lucasville had its cemetery on the Old Sackville Road, which many of the original settlers are buried in the road. • The focal point of the community is the Lucasville United Baptist Church