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20.1 An Age of Ideologies. Conservatives Prefer the Old Order. Congress of Vienna led to differing ideologies. Concert of Europe was the name of the agreement Victory for Conservative forces.(monarchs, officials, nobles, church leaders) Restore the royal families before Napoleon
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Conservatives Prefer the Old Order • Congress of Vienna led to differing ideologies. • Concert of Europe was the name of the agreement • Victory for Conservative forces.(monarchs, officials, nobles, church leaders) • Restore the royal families before Napoleon • Leaders like Metternich urged monarchs to oppose freedom of press and crush protests
Liberals and Nationalists Seek Change • Liberals, Promise Freedom • The spoke mostly for the, bourgeoisie(business owners, bankers, lawyers, politicians, newspaper editors and writers) • Wanted government based on written constitutions and challenge divine right monarchy • Believed government should protect basic rights such as freedom of thought, speech and religion • Universal manhood suffrage, giving all adult men the right to vote, does not come until later in the century • Support laissez-faire economics of Adam Smith and David Ricardo • Believed entrepreneurs could succeed • Liberals often had different goals than the workers!
Nationalists Strive for Unity • By 1815, Europe had several empires that included many nationalities as a result of wars, marriages and treaties • In the 1800’s, national groups set out to win independence for their own states • Nationalism gave people a sense of identity and the goal of their own homeland • Did breed intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups • How did the liberalism of the early 1800’s reflect Enlightenment ideals?
Central Europe Challenges the Old Order • During the 1800’s, rebellions erupted in the Balkan Peninsula and around the southern fringe of Europe. • These people had lived under Ottoman Rule for 300 years. • Serbia Seeks Independence • Karageorge led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans from 1804-1813 • Not successful, but led to a sense of identity • MilosObrenovic led the Serbs in a second more successful rebellion • Turned to Russia for assistance
Like the Serbs, the Russians were Slavic in language and Christian Orthodox in Religion • By 1830, Russia helped the Serbs achieve autonomy, or self-rule • Greece Revolts to End Ottoman Rule • Viewed as a “national war, a holy war, a war to reconquer the rights of individual liberty” • Poet Lord Byron went to aid the fight for independence • 1820’s, Britain, France, and Russia forced the Ottomans to grant independence to some Greek provinces • European powers pressured them to accept a German king
More Challenges Erupts • 1820’s-In Spain, Portugal and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggle to gain constitutional governments • As a result of Metternich’s advise, French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress a revolt in Spain • Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash outbreaks in Italy. • By the mid-1800’s, social reformers and agitators were urging workers to support socialism and other ways of reorganizing property ownership