Conservatives Prefer the Old Order • Congress of Vienna led to differing ideologies. • Concert of Europe was the name of the agreement • Victory for Conservative forces.(monarchs, officials, nobles, church leaders) • Restore the royal families before Napoleon • Leaders like Metternich urged monarchs to oppose freedom of press and crush protests
Liberals and Nationalists Seek Change • Liberals, Promise Freedom • The spoke mostly for the, bourgeoisie(business owners, bankers, lawyers, politicians, newspaper editors and writers) • Wanted government based on written constitutions and challenge divine right monarchy • Believed government should protect basic rights such as freedom of thought, speech and religion • Universal manhood suffrage, giving all adult men the right to vote, does not come until later in the century • Support laissez-faire economics of Adam Smith and David Ricardo • Believed entrepreneurs could succeed • Liberals often had different goals than the workers!
Nationalists Strive for Unity • By 1815, Europe had several empires that included many nationalities as a result of wars, marriages and treaties • In the 1800’s, national groups set out to win independence for their own states • Nationalism gave people a sense of identity and the goal of their own homeland • Did breed intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups • How did the liberalism of the early 1800’s reflect Enlightenment ideals?
Central Europe Challenges the Old Order • During the 1800’s, rebellions erupted in the Balkan Peninsula and around the southern fringe of Europe. • These people had lived under Ottoman Rule for 300 years. • Serbia Seeks Independence • Karageorge led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans from 1804-1813 • Not successful, but led to a sense of identity • MilosObrenovic led the Serbs in a second more successful rebellion • Turned to Russia for assistance
Like the Serbs, the Russians were Slavic in language and Christian Orthodox in Religion • By 1830, Russia helped the Serbs achieve autonomy, or self-rule • Greece Revolts to End Ottoman Rule • Viewed as a “national war, a holy war, a war to reconquer the rights of individual liberty” • Poet Lord Byron went to aid the fight for independence • 1820’s, Britain, France, and Russia forced the Ottomans to grant independence to some Greek provinces • European powers pressured them to accept a German king
More Challenges Erupts • 1820’s-In Spain, Portugal and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggle to gain constitutional governments • As a result of Metternich’s advise, French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress a revolt in Spain • Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash outbreaks in Italy. • By the mid-1800’s, social reformers and agitators were urging workers to support socialism and other ways of reorganizing property ownership