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An Age of Ideologies:

An Age of Ideologies:

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An Age of Ideologies:

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  1. An Age of Ideologies: New systems of thought and belief

  2. Quickwrite: What is the difference between a conservative and a liberal? What are some conservative beliefs? What are some liberal beliefs?

  3. New political philosophies:A legacy of the French Revolution

  4. Liberte (Liberty): • led to liberalism • Egalite (Equality): • led to socialism • Fraternite (Fraternity): • led to nationalism & imperialism

  5. Industrial Revolution influences new political philosophies

  6. New wealth • Possessed by bourgeois • New working conditions • Experienced by socialists • New trade patterns • Internal competition in Europe • Imperialist expansion

  7. Conservatives of the 1800s

  8. Appealed to: • Monarchs, noble-landowners, church leaders • Approved of a social order where the lower classes obeyed the upper class • Backed the idea of an established church • Peasants • Wanted to preserve traditional ways

  9. Believed… • talk of natural rights and a constitutional government would only lead to chaos • change must come slowly • their work benefited all people by maintaining peace and stability

  10. Actions • Formed “Concert of Europe” • group of monarchs who worked together to suppress revolutionary ideas in Europe

  11. Liberals of the 1800s

  12. Appealed to: • The bourgeoisie – the ‘middle class’ • business owners, bankers, lawyers, politicians

  13. Believed government should be based on: • a written constitution • Separation of powers • protection of natural rights of indivudiuals • Idea of a republic • wanted rulers elected by the people

  14. But… government’s main job was • to protect basic rights • NOT TO… • interfere with business • strongly supported laissez faire economics – saw the free market as “opportunity” for all

  15. Hmmmmm…. Where do the working class citizens fit in??

  16. Rise of Nationalism in the 1800s

  17. Nationalism • extreme pride in your nation • gives people a sense of identity • Early 1800s - groups with shared heritage set out to win their own states • Goal: create their own homeland

  18. Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 • Serbs against Ottoman empire • Greeks revolt against Ottomans • French rebels fight for constitutional monarch • Belgium wins indepence • Poles fight (but fail) • France revolts again…

  19. Revolution surges through Europe • Middle class wanted a greater share of political power • Workers demand wanted relief from miseries • Nationalists of ALL classes wanted to be rid of foreign rule