An Age of Ideologies: New systems of thought and belief
Quickwrite: What is the difference between a conservative and a liberal? What are some conservative beliefs? What are some liberal beliefs?
Liberte (Liberty): • led to liberalism • Egalite (Equality): • led to socialism • Fraternite (Fraternity): • led to nationalism & imperialism
New wealth • Possessed by bourgeois • New working conditions • Experienced by socialists • New trade patterns • Internal competition in Europe • Imperialist expansion
Appealed to: • Monarchs, noble-landowners, church leaders • Approved of a social order where the lower classes obeyed the upper class • Backed the idea of an established church • Peasants • Wanted to preserve traditional ways
Believed… • talk of natural rights and a constitutional government would only lead to chaos • change must come slowly • their work benefited all people by maintaining peace and stability
Actions • Formed “Concert of Europe” • group of monarchs who worked together to suppress revolutionary ideas in Europe
Appealed to: • The bourgeoisie – the ‘middle class’ • business owners, bankers, lawyers, politicians
Believed government should be based on: • a written constitution • Separation of powers • protection of natural rights of indivudiuals • Idea of a republic • wanted rulers elected by the people
But… government’s main job was • to protect basic rights • NOT TO… • interfere with business • strongly supported laissez faire economics – saw the free market as “opportunity” for all
Hmmmmm…. Where do the working class citizens fit in??
Nationalism • extreme pride in your nation • gives people a sense of identity • Early 1800s - groups with shared heritage set out to win their own states • Goal: create their own homeland
Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 • Serbs against Ottoman empire • Greeks revolt against Ottomans • French rebels fight for constitutional monarch • Belgium wins indepence • Poles fight (but fail) • France revolts again…
Revolution surges through Europe • Middle class wanted a greater share of political power • Workers demand wanted relief from miseries • Nationalists of ALL classes wanted to be rid of foreign rule