Age of Ideologies. Ideologies are systems of thought and beliefs. Congress of Vienna. The goals of the Congress of Vienna were clearly conservative: 1) rebalance Power 2) protect legitimacy to preserve monarchs.
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Ideologies are systems of thought and beliefs
The goals of the Congress of Vienna were clearly conservative:
1) rebalance Power 2) protect legitimacy to preserve monarchs
The leader of the Congress, Prince Von Metternich from Austria opposed freedom of the press and recommended nations suppress revolutionary ideas in their own nations, and in bordering states.
Monarchs, government officials, church officials and noble landowners supported Metternich’s views and the Congress of Vienna. Anyone who benefits from the old order.
Most monarchs believed that if change should come, the change should come slowly.
“The words liberty, justice and happiness of the greatest number are criminal. They give men’s minds a habit of discussion. Man ends by distrusting the authority of the princes set up by God”
Who’s ideas are attacked by this speaker?
What is the author referring to when he says; “the authority of the princes set up by God”
Enlightened thinkers such as Locke and Rousseau
Divine Right of monarchs
Liberals embrace the enlightenment. They speak out against Divine Right monarchies, the old aristocracy and established churches
Liberals defend natural rights (L.L.P.) and equality.
Most of the Bourgeoisie are liberal
-constitutional governments with separation of powers
-rulers elected by the people
-Republics or limited monarchies
The liberals support laissez faire economics. They want to keep the government out of the economic decisions. Laissez Faire= Hands OFF
The differences between the conservatives and the liberals represent different ideologies- systems of thought and belief
Despite the attempts of the Congress of Vienna to create a strong, balanced Europe struggles persist. A growing sense of nationalism in several nations ignites a number of Revolts in the 19th century (1800s)
Over the centuries wars and marriages had shaped the boundaries of Europe. These boundaries were constantly shifting and changing. Each “nation” included a diverse group of people. Nationalism gave these diverse people with a common heritage a sense of identity.
Nationalism gives groups of people a common identity and a goal of creating their own nation. However, extreme nationalism can lead to intolerance and persecution of other national and ethnic minorities.
Southeast Europe is home to many diverse ethnic groups, but the general area, known as the Balkans, had been under Ottoman rule for nearly 300 years. In the early 1800’s several ethnic groups revolted
The Serbs were discouraged with the absolute monarchy ruling them. The Serbs revolted twice, once in 1804 and again in 1817. Both of these revolts were crushed by the Ottomans, but the Serbs did negotiate Autonomy within the Ottoman Empire.
In this case the Serbs are still ultimately ruled by the Ottomans, but they can make their own sub government, laws, rules and customs.
The Serbian success fostered Serbian identity and inspired a revival of Slavic literature and culture
Serbian success inspired other groups within the Ottoman empire to revolt. The Greeks revolt in 1821, but are divided, making them easy to defeat. The Ottomans reinforce their rule.
However, the Greeks do not give up. The continuing struggle for independence gains momentum, and attracts the attention of Britain, France and Russia. These nations pressure the Ottomans to grant independence to the Greeks.
Though Britain, France and Russia had supported Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire, they also forced the Greeks to accept a German King.
By supporting their independence butnot allowing the Greeks to create their own government, the European nationsare showing that they do not accept Liberal Revolutionary ideas.
Revolts and uprisings will continue throughout Europe for the 19th century. Ideological tensions and social inequalities spark uprisings in France and elsewhere in Europe. Although most of these democratic revolutions were suppressed, they served to hasten reform later in the century.
Which statement about nationalism is most accurate?
1. It becomes a unifying force among a people
2. It encourages diversity within nation-states
3. It prevents the rise of militarism
4. It eliminates ethnic identities of different groups
In a number of European countries in the 1800s, which situation occurred as result of the influence of the French Revolution?
Increase in religious conflict
Rise of nationalistic movements
Decentralization of governmental power
All of the following represent liberal ideology except;
Republic or limited monarchy
Voting rights for men
The period right after the Congress of Vienna (1820s) is considered restoration.
As soon as King Louis XVIII was placed on the throne he issued a constitution, the Charter of French Liberties:
-created a two house legislature
-allowed limited freedom of press
This constitution was an attempt to shun absolutism, while maintaining most of the power.
Though Louis had tried to compromise he had few supporters
Which is a conservative view point? Which is a liberal?
After King Louis XVIII dies in 1824, Charles inherits the throne of France. He is a strong believer in absolutism. He rejects his brother’s Charter of French Liberties.
In July 1830, Charles suspends the Legislature, limits the right vote, and restricts the press.
Charles quickly became hated and the Liberals and Radicals respond forcefully. Angry riots by liberals in Paris begin barricading the streets and firing on the soldiers. Chaos ensues, and Charles X abdicates
After Charles X fled, the French legislature placed Louis Philippe upon the throne. He had supported the 1789 revolution. As king, Louis got along with the liberal bourgeoisie and the middle class prospered. Louis often passed reforms which benefited the middle class, but hurt the workers. He was known as the citizen king.
How does the picture of the citizen king differ from that of King Louis XVI, and Charles X?
In the 1840’s discontent grew several factors contributed to the growing resentment of the state and calls for reform:
-Corruption in the government
-radicals call for a republic to extend suffrage
-slow economy = people struggle to feed their families
In February 1848 the government began taking steps to silence the calls for reform. They banned public meetings and censored the press.
The people rioted, blocking the streets of Paris with trees and carts and armed citizens. Roaring choruses of “la Marseillaise” filled Paris. Many were killed in clashes with the Royal troops.
By the end of February, the Citizen King, Louis Philippe abdicates the throne and the second French Republic begins.
Toward the end of 1848 the National Assembly passed a constitution making France a Republic once again. The constitution:
-created a strong president -a one-house legislature
-gave the vote to all adult men- 9 million Frenchmen
When elections were held, Louis Napoleon won in a landslide (Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew). Within a few years Louis Napoleon named himself Emperor.
However, Napoleon III fell to the same fate as his uncle, and lost it all trying to conquer Europe. France once again became a monarchy.