The Age of Ideologies in Europe (1815-1871). I. Europe After Napoleon. Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Almost every state in Europe sent a representative. Leading political figures from the four powers gathered in Vienna to decide the fate of Europe. - Austria – Clemens von Metternich
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Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
- Austria – Clemens von Metternich
- Russia – Czar Alexander I
- Great Britain – Lord Robert Castelreagh
- Prussia – Prince Karl Hardenburg
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
- Restored the original rulers in Spain and the Italian states.
- Poland remained in the Russian Empire / a concession for Russia’s role in defeating Napoleon
- France was returned to its 1790 borders
- The Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands, both annexed by France, were united under the new kingdom of the Netherlands.
- Prussia gained territory in Saxony
- Austria regained its Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia
- The German Confederation was created to replace the Holy Roman Empire which was dismantled
- Austria & Prussia agreed, Britain didn’t.
- Britain wanted to reserve the right to act according to its interests, not anyone else’s.
- they favored traditional societies based on agricultural production
- Industrialization strengthened the bourgeoisie and weakened the landed nobility
- the bourgeoisie owned the means of production (labor, capital, banks, railroads, factories)
- Rulers should be elected by the people / should rule in the interests of the people
- Liberalism was a “bourgeois” ideology and the Industrial Revolution benefited first and foremost the bourgeoisie.
- Strong faith in “free market capitalism”
- Their ideas of private ownership of the means of production and maximizing profits conflicted with socialists who felt that workers should control the means of production and profits should be more equitably distributed
- Adam Smith –The Wealth of Nations (1776) –"from the experience of all ages and nations, I believe, that the work done by free men comes cheaper in the end than that performed by slaves."
- unification of Italy & Germany (1860-1871)
- the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire (1804-1918)
- the establishment of the “Dual Monarchy” (Austro-Hungarian Empire - 1867)
- conflict between European nations that led to World War I
Revolutions of 1830:
- Louis Philippe was chosen as a compromise king. He was from the ruling family (Bourbon) but was a supporter of the French Revolution up until 1792.
- wealthy males were given the right to vote but most people still could not vote or run for office / 170,000 out of 3o million people could vote – 5-6% of the pop.
Revolutions of 1848 – “The year of Revolution.”
- As a result, major antagonism between the working class and the bourgeoisie.
- Gave the right to vote to ALL men – the first time in history this happened.
- 9 million Frenchmen voted as opposed to 200,000 before 1848.
- A proposal to extend suffrage to women lost 899-1.
Emperor Napoleon III.
- his rule led to rapid economic development
- renovated Paris to create wide boulevards.
Revolutions of 1848 (continued)
Results of the Liberal Revolutions(1789-1848):
vs. Ottoman Empire
* Led by Djordje Petrovic (Karadjordje), the Serbs fought the Turks.
* Serbs wanted to unite Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia- Herzegovina in an independent state.
* Received substantial help from Russia. Russia then made peace with the Ottomans as a result of Napoleon’s attack.
*1815 – Milos Obrenovic led the Serbian campaign.
* Serbs gained autonomy in 1833. Independence will come in 1878 as a result of Russo-Turkish War.
vs. Ottoman Empire
2. Greece (1820-1830)
- Greece was the source of Western Civilization (Britain & France)
- Greece (Byzantine Empire) was the source of the Eastern Orthodox Church (Russia)
* Czar Alexander I ruled in Poland as a limited monarch. It had a constitution (the only subject of the Russian Empire to have one), an elected parliament, and freedom of speech, press, religion.
* Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander, began curtailing these rights.
* The Polish Uprising of 1830 was crushed by Russian troops.
* The Poles rose up again in 1863 against increasing Russian repression. They were crushed again.
* Poland gained its independence in 1918 as a result of the collapse of the Russian Empire.
- different ethnic backgrounds / different languages
- Belgians are Catholic / Dutch are Protestant
- Belgian economy was based on industry / Dutch based on shipping/trade
- Belgian student uprising was supported by Britain and France. Established independence in 1831 with a liberal constitution.
- Most of the northern Italian states were under Austrian occupation.
- Italian nationalists were disappointed that an independent state was not created at the Congress of Vienna.
- Through wars of liberation in the north and south,
Italy was unified in 1860.
- The Italian Kingdom was unified under Viktor
Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia.
- Rome was made the capital of Italy in 1871.
- both Austria and Prussia are ethnically identical. Both speak German. Their difference is religious: Austria is mostly Catholic / Prussia is mostly Lutheran.
- The Zollverein (1830’s) Prussia established an economic union for the German Confederation (minus Austria) similar to today’s EU / dismantled trade barrier and instituted a single currency.
- The Zollverein was extremely successful in promoting economic development and industrialization.
- Based on the economic union, many German liberals wanted political unification based on a constitutional government. They failed to achieve this in 1848.
- Bismarck promised Liberals an economic policy that would favor business. But no liberal constitutional government. They agreed.
- First Reich = Holy Roman Empire (800-1804)
- Second Reich = The German Empire (1871-1918)
- Third Reich = Nazi Germany (1933-1945)
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Kaiser Wilhelm I (1797-1888)
- universal healthcare
- universal education
- unemployment insurance
- pensions for retired workers
- sick leave / workman’s compensation
East & West Germany (1949-1989) Unified Germany (1990-)