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The Age of Ideologies in Europe (1815-1871). I. Europe After Napoleon. Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Almost every state in Europe sent a representative. Leading political figures from the four powers gathered in Vienna to decide the fate of Europe. - Austria – Clemens von Metternich

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i europe after napoleon
I. Europe After Napoleon

Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

  • Almost every state in Europe sent a representative.
  • Leading political figures from the four powers gathered in Vienna to decide the fate of Europe.

- Austria – Clemens von Metternich

- Russia – Czar Alexander I

- Great Britain – Lord Robert Castelreagh

- Prussia – Prince Karl Hardenburg

i europe after napoleon4
I. Europe After Napoleon

Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

  • Most of Europe’s leaders hoped to nullify revolutionary and Napoleonic reforms and restore the old order (pre-1789).

- Restored the original rulers in Spain and the Italian states.

- Poland remained in the Russian Empire / a concession for Russia’s role in defeating Napoleon

i europe after napoleon5
I. Europe After Napoleon
  • The Congress wanted to achieve postwar stability by establishing secure states with guaranteed borders.

- France was returned to its 1790 borders

- The Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands, both annexed by France, were united under the new kingdom of the Netherlands.

- Prussia gained territory in Saxony

- Austria regained its Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia

- The German Confederation was created to replace the Holy Roman Empire which was dismantled

i europe after napoleon6
I. Europe After Napoleon
  • France’s representative, Charles Talleyrand was able to convince the Congress that France should remain a strong, respected country.
  • The guiding principle of international relations at the Congress of Vienna was balance of power.
  • Russian Czar Alexander I proposed a “Holy Alliance” of Christian nations against revolutionary upheavals anywhere in Europe.

- Austria & Prussia agreed, Britain didn’t.

- Britain wanted to reserve the right to act according to its interests, not anyone else’s.

  • The decisions made at Vienna ensured peace in Europe until 1850 and no major wars until World War I (1914).
ii ideologies
II. Ideologies
  • a systematic body of concepts especially about human life or culture.
  • Secular beliefs
  • Conservatism, Liberalism, Republicanism, Socialism, Communism
ii ideologies conservatism
II. Ideologies: Conservatism
  • A desire to return to the conditions and social order that existed in Europe prior to the French Revolution
  • Rejected the French Revolution as a disaster and Napoleon as a tyrant.
  • The Enlightenment, and its emphasis on pure reason, was rejected.
  • A stable society should be based on the church, the state and the family.
  • Faith, history and tradition should replace reason and excessive belief in individual rights.
  • Change, if it comes, must be gradual and must take into account the country’s history and traditions.
ii ideologies conservatism9
II. Ideologies: Conservatism


  • Called for the return of hereditary monarchy wherever it was overthrown.
  • Constitutional government leads to chaos
  • Democracy, suffrage, were rejected.
  • Political decisions need to be made by the monarch and his closest advisers.
ii ideologies conservatism10
II. Ideologies: Conservatism


  • Called for a return of a social order with strict class divisions / a system based on a hierarchy similar to the 3 estates in pre-revolutionary France
  • Respect for rank and status must be re-established.
ii ideologies conservatism11
II. Ideologies: Conservatism


  • Initially, most conservatives rejected the Industrial Revolution because:

- they favored traditional societies based on agricultural production

- Industrialization strengthened the bourgeoisie and weakened the landed nobility

- the bourgeoisie owned the means of production (labor, capital, banks, railroads, factories)

ii ideologies conservatism12
II. Ideologies: Conservatism


  • Favored an established, official and powerful church: Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox.
  • The French revolutionary’s radical interpretation of the Enlightenment led to the violence against the Catholic Church
conservative thinkers edmund burke
Conservative Thinkers: Edmund Burke
  • Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
  • British politician, writer who condemned the violence and abuses of the French Revolution
  • Wrote “Reflections on the Revolution in France” (1790)
ii ideologies liberalism
II. Ideologies: Liberalism
  • Liberals were inspired by the Enlightenment and the moderate gains of the French Revolution.
  • Liberals were mostly from the middle class / “bourgeois liberalism”
ii ideologies liberalism15
II. Ideologies: Liberalism


  • Favored governments based on written constitutions and separation of powers
  • Supported either Republican government or constitutional monarchy

- Rulers should be elected by the people / should rule in the interests of the people

  • Opposed absolute monarchy
  • At first, favored only male property owners or “men with money” having the right to vote. Towards the end of the 19th C. they supported universal male suffrage.
ii ideologies liberalism16
II. Ideologies: Liberalism


  • Defended the natural rights of individuals to liberty, equality, and property.
  • Government’s role is limited to protecting basic rights such as freedom of thought, speech, and religion.
  • Males should be equal under the law.
  • Hereditary privileges (except property) should be eliminated.
ii ideologies liberalism17
II. Ideologies: Liberalism


  • Welcomed the Industrial Revolution

- Liberalism was a “bourgeois” ideology and the Industrial Revolution benefited first and foremost the bourgeoisie.

  • Supported “laissez-faire economics / minimal government regulation of the economy

- Strong faith in “free market capitalism”

- Their ideas of private ownership of the means of production and maximizing profits conflicted with socialists who felt that workers should control the means of production and profits should be more equitably distributed

- Adam Smith –The Wealth of Nations (1776) –"from the experience of all ages and nations, I believe, that the work done by free men comes cheaper in the end than that performed by slaves."

ii ideologies liberalism18
II. Ideologies: Liberalism


  • Believed in separation of church and state
  • Opposed the establishment of an “official” church.
  • Freedom and equal status for religions.
ii ideologies nationalism
II. Ideologies: Nationalism
  • Loyalty and devotion to one's nation or country, especially as above loyalty to other groups or to individual interests.
  • Shared religion — along with common ethnicity, political heritage, and history — are factors that draw people together in nationalist movements.
  • The desire for national independence in a country under foreign domination.
  • Early nationalism in Europe was tied to liberalism.
  • Nationalism led to:

- unification of Italy & Germany (1860-1871)

- the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire (1804-1918)

- the establishment of the “Dual Monarchy” (Austro-Hungarian Empire - 1867)

- conflict between European nations that led to World War I

  • Extreme nationalism = FASCISM – Nazi Germany
iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals
  • Most of the political turmoil of the nineteenth century was a struggle between liberals who wanted to preserve and spread the gains of the French Revolution and conservatives who wanted to return to the old, pre-1789 order.
  • Nationalists and liberals joined together to fight for the independence of their countries from foreign rule.
  • Socialists joined the political struggles against both liberals and conservatives in 1848 to fight for economic equality and the rights of the working class.
iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals21
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals

Revolutions of 1830:


  • Louis XVIII issued a constitution upon his return after Napoleon’s abdication – Charter of French Liberties.
  • His brother, Charles X (1824-1830) rejected the Charter, suspended parliament, limited the right to vote and restricted the press
  • Liberals and radicals took to the streets to demonstrate against Charles X. / When violence broke out, Charles X fled to England.
  • Radicals wanted a Republic / Liberals preferred a constitutional monarchy.

- Louis Philippe was chosen as a compromise king. He was from the ruling family (Bourbon) but was a supporter of the French Revolution up until 1792.

  • Under Louis Philippe, the upper bourgeoisie benefited (like in first revolution up until 1792)

- wealthy males were given the right to vote but most people still could not vote or run for office / 170,000 out of 3o million people could vote – 5-6% of the pop.

iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals22
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals
  • Les Miserables, the play based on Victor Hugo’s book, is set in Paris during the Revolution of 1830.
iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals23
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals

Revolutions of 1848 – “The year of Revolution.”


  • Louis Philippe’s government became increasingly corrupt.
  • French liberals denounced Louis’s government / called for extended suffrage.
  • French radicals wanted the end of monarchy and a new republic.
  • French socialists called for an end to private property and “national workshops”.
  • The economy was in a recession.
  • Government tries to prevent public meetings and silence critics.
iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals24
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals
  • Royal troops clashed with demonstrators in Paris. People were killed.
  • Louis Philippe abdicates the thrown and escapes to England.
  • The liberal, radical and socialist leaders of the revolt proclaimed the Second Republic (First – 1792-1804)
  • Liberals clashed with socialists.
  • Pro-socialist workers took to the streets in Paris against the liberal government. The liberals, supported by the army and peasants, killed 1,500 protesters.

- As a result, major antagonism between the working class and the bourgeoisie.

iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals25
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals
  • Newly formed National Assembly created a constitution that provided for a strong president and a legislature.

- Gave the right to vote to ALL men – the first time in history this happened.

- 9 million Frenchmen voted as opposed to 200,000 before 1848.

- A proposal to extend suffrage to women lost 899-1.

  • Louis Napoleon was elected / nephew of Napoleon


  • Was very popular with all Frenchmen.
  • 1852 – ended the Second Republic by naming himself

Emperor Napoleon III.

- his rule led to rapid economic development

- renovated Paris to create wide boulevards.

iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals26
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals
  • “When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold.” – Clemens von Metternich

Revolutions of 1848 (continued)


  • Student-led demonstrations for political reform in Vienna turned violent / Metternich resigned and escaped to England.
  • Nationalist uprising in Hungary demanding autonomy. The Slavs (Czechs, Slovaks, Croatians) demanded more representation in parliament.
  • Emperor Ferdinand promised a constitution, an elected parliament, and the end to censorship.
  • With the help of Russian forces, the Hungarian uprising was crushed.
  • When serfdom was abolished at the end of 1848, peasant lost interest in the revolution.
iii political upheavals conservatives vs liberals27
III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives vs. Liberals

Results of the Liberal Revolutions(1789-1848):

  • None of the uprisings led to immediate gains
  • Rulers used military force successfully to crush rebellions.
  • Revolutionaries were split into different groups with different agendas
  • Revolutionaries did not have mass support
  • Aristocracy remained a powerful class
  • In the long-term, the revolutions contributed to democratic and social reforms in European states
iii political upheavals nationalist revolts
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalist Revolts

vs. Ottoman Empire

  • Serbia (1804 – 1817)

* Led by Djordje Petrovic (Karadjordje), the Serbs fought the Turks.

* Serbs wanted to unite Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia- Herzegovina in an independent state.

* Received substantial help from Russia. Russia then made peace with the Ottomans as a result of Napoleon’s attack.

*1815 – Milos Obrenovic led the Serbian campaign.

* Serbs gained autonomy in 1833. Independence will come in 1878 as a result of Russo-Turkish War.

iii political upheavals nationalist revolts30
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalist Revolts

vs. Ottoman Empire

2. Greece (1820-1830)

  • Alexander Ypsilanti, a Greek general in the Russian army, led an unsuccessful revolt for independence.
  • The Turks retaliated by killing the Greek patriarch. They destroyed churches under their control, massacred the men and sold the women into slavery.
  • Greeks gained the support from the Britain, France, and Russia.

- Greece was the source of Western Civilization (Britain & France)

- Greece (Byzantine Empire) was the source of the Eastern Orthodox Church (Russia)

greek war of independence
Greek War of Independence
  • On March 25, 1821 the bishop Germanos of Patras raised the Greek flag at the Monastery of Agia Lavra in Peloponnese and the started the War of Independence against the Turks.
iii political upheavals nationalist revolts32
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalist Revolts

vs. Russia

  • Poland (1815-1830)

* Czar Alexander I ruled in Poland as a limited monarch. It had a constitution (the only subject of the Russian Empire to have one), an elected parliament, and freedom of speech, press, religion.

* Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander, began curtailing these rights.

* The Polish Uprising of 1830 was crushed by Russian troops.

* The Poles rose up again in 1863 against increasing Russian repression. They were crushed again.

* Poland gained its independence in 1918 as a result of the collapse of the Russian Empire.

famous polish nationalist adam mickiewicz 1798 1855
Famous Polish Nationalist: Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855)
  • One of Poland’s most famous writers. Polish patriot that wrote about the struggles that Poles faced for independence.
  • Born in Lithuania.
  • Spent 1824-1829 living/socializing with Russian intelligentsia in Odessa, Moscow, St. Petersburg.
  • After the failed Polish Uprising (1830), lived mostly in Paris.
  • Tried to organize Polish Legions against the Russians.
iii political upheavals nationalist revolts34
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalist Revolts


  • 1815 – Congress of Vienna united Belgium and Holland to create a strong barrier against France to the north.
  • Belgians did not want to be united with Holland:

- different ethnic backgrounds / different languages

- Belgians are Catholic / Dutch are Protestant

- Belgian economy was based on industry / Dutch based on shipping/trade

- Belgian student uprising was supported by Britain and France. Established independence in 1831 with a liberal constitution.

iii political upheavals nationalism and unification
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalism and Unification
  • Italy (1815-1860)

- Most of the northern Italian states were under Austrian occupation.

- Italian nationalists were disappointed that an independent state was not created at the Congress of Vienna.

- Through wars of liberation in the north and south,

Italy was unified in 1860.

- The Italian Kingdom was unified under Viktor

Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia.

- Rome was made the capital of Italy in 1871.

iii leaders of italian unification
III. Leaders of Italian Unification
  • Giuseppe Mazzini – “father of Italian nationalism” / wanted Italian unification under a Republican government.
  • Camilo Cavour – Prime Minister of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel. Achieved Italian unification with Victor Emmanuel II as the King.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi – “professional revolutionary” / liberated and unified southern Italy / preferred a united Italy under Republican government but most important to him was a UNIFIED ITALY.
  • Victor Emmanuel II – King of Sardinia and the first King of a unified Italy.
iii political upheavals nationalism and unification37
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalism and Unification

2. Germany

  • “Germany” in the form of the Holy Roman Empire began disintegrating as a result of the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  • Napoleon put an end to the Holy Roman Empire in 1804.
  • The two strongest German states that emerged from the Holy Roman Empire were Austria and Prussia.

- both Austria and Prussia are ethnically identical. Both speak German. Their difference is religious: Austria is mostly Catholic / Prussia is mostly Lutheran.

  • As a result of the Congress of Vienna, a German Confederation, composed of 38 German states (not including Prussia and Austria) was formed. Austria and Prussia competed with each other to unite all of the German states into 1 country.
iii political upheavals nationalism and unification38
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalism and Unification
  • Prussia led the process of unification. First step, economic unification:

- The Zollverein (1830’s) Prussia established an economic union for the German Confederation (minus Austria) similar to today’s EU / dismantled trade barrier and instituted a single currency.

- The Zollverein was extremely successful in promoting economic development and industrialization.

- Based on the economic union, many German liberals wanted political unification based on a constitutional government. They failed to achieve this in 1848.

iii political upheavals nationalism and unification39
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalism and Unification
  • Prussian Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck wanted German unification ONLY to strengthen Prussia and its Kaiser, Wilhelm I (Hohenzollern Dynasty.)

- Bismarck promised Liberals an economic policy that would favor business. But no liberal constitutional government. They agreed.

  • Through a series of wars (vs. Denmark, Austria, France), German unification was achieved in 1871.
iii political upheavals nationalism and unification40
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalism and Unification
  • The German Empire, also known as the Second Reich, was established.

- First Reich = Holy Roman Empire (800-1804)

- Second Reich = The German Empire (1871-1918)

- Third Reich = Nazi Germany (1933-1945)

leaders of german unification 1848 1871
Leaders of German Unification (1848-1871)

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Kaiser Wilhelm I (1797-1888)

iii political upheavals nationalism and unification43
III. Political Upheavals: Nationalism and Unification
  • Immediately after unification, German economic and military power was equal to Great Britain and France.
  • Social reforms from (1871-1912) established the most generous government-sponsored welfare programs of that time period:

- universal healthcare

- universal education

- unemployment insurance

- pensions for retired workers

- sick leave / workman’s compensation

  • Since the establishment of a unified Germany, the country has had one of the strongest economies in the world.
germany 1949 1990
Germany (1949-1990)

East & West Germany (1949-1989) Unified Germany (1990-)