An Age of Ideologies LEARNING TARGET: I can compare the competing ideologies of 19th century Europe.
After the French Revolution and the Age of Napoleon, there were different ideas and beliefs about what direction society should go in. • Conservatives • Liberals • Nationalists
Conservatives: Think Metternich at the Congress of Vienna. • Wanted to preserve the “old order” • Stressed: • Tradition (traditional social hierarchy) • Hereditary monarchy (divine right) • Landowning aristocracy • An official church (remember, Enlightenment thinkers were deists.) • Mercantilist economy • Wanted to maintain status quo or only SLOW change CONSERVATISM
Prince Clemens von Metternich, Austrian foreign minister, leader at Congress of Vienna
Liberals: Think John Locke and other Enlightenment philosophers (mostly bourgeoisie) • Were inspired by the Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions. • Principal Ideas: Liberty and Equality • Wanted: • representative government (written constitutions, separation of powers) • Freedom of speech, press, etc… • Laissez faire economics (capitalism) LIBERALISM
In the 1800s, Europe had several empires that included many diverse nationalities. • Austrian Empire • Russian Empire • Ottoman Empire • EX: Austrian Empire: Germans (dominant, but only made up ¼ of the population; Hungarians, Czechs, Italians, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Romanians, etc… • Nationalism was based on the belief that each group of people has its own cultural identity/unity and should have their own state. NATIONALISM
Which of the ideologies we discussed today represented change? • How did Napoleon’s empire building contribute to feelings of nationalism in Europe? • Can you predict the impact nationalism has had on history? Critical Thinking Questions
Rebellion erupted in the Balkan Peninsula – Southeastern Europe • The Ottoman Empire had ruled over several religious/ethnic groups for 300 years • 1.) Serbs - won autonomy in 1830 • Russia helped them. Why? Common Slavic language and Christian Orthodox religion • 2.) Greeks – gained independence in 1830 • 3.) Other revolts in Spain, Portugal, and Italy were crushed by France and Austria. Central Europe Challenges the Old Order