Colonies vs. England. Following the French and Indian War… New British lands and the colonists desire to expand led to… Bad relationship with Indians which led to… Standing British military in colonies…. Let’s take a step back…. What do you need for war?. What are the costs of war?.
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Colonies vs. England Following the French and Indian War… New British lands and the colonists desire to expand led to… Bad relationship with Indians which led to… Standing British military in colonies…
Let’s take a step back… What do you need for war?
When it comes down to it… $ WAR =
War Costs Money • Debt already accrued (GB Debt + results of the F&I War)$40 million in 1774 = $1,120,000,000.00 (2011)$ 1,120,000,000.00 ≈ £717.7 million • Growing DebtPayment for the standing British military presence • So instead of making money off the colonies, Great Britain now has an increasing debt!
What are taxes? *see tax worksheet
Which are the King’s reasons for taxing? Why Tax? • 1. Raise money – every time a person buys a good, the government then receives some money from the tax (ex. sales tax) • 2. Protect domestic business (protective tariffs) – a tax/tariff on an imported good makes the price of it higher than goods made within the borders; people more likely to buy the lower priced item (domestic good) • 3. Prove a point – that a government has the right/authority to impose taxes on its citizens
TAXES • Who was going to pay these taxes? • British King? • British citizens? • Was it their war? • Colonists? • Subjects of the Crown not English citizens
Taxes/Tariffs How do the colonists pay? Indirect Tax Direct Tax Parliament (Great Britain) voted to tax colonists directly Colonists could not refuse the tax Colonists could not vote or have representation in Parliament • King asked the Colonial Assembly (colonists elected to a law making group) to pass taxes
Road to the Revolution
Road to the Revolution :Sugar Act "it is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this Kingdom ... and ... it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised ... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same." Details Colonists’ Response Unpopular in the colonies Samuel Adams and James Otis two prime movers against the Act Created the Committee of Correspondence to improve communication among the colonies (S. Adams) • 1764 • Indirect tax on imported sugar, molasses, some wines(from West Indies) – tax money went to GB • Customers paid higher prices due to tax • Repealed by King
Road to the Revolution :Stamp Act Details Colonists’ Response Unpopular in the colonies Sons of Liberty; secret society created (S. Adams) Boycotts and protests (hurting London merchants; cried over lost business) Patrick Henry – VA House of Burgess (series of resolutions) James Otis – “taxation without representation is tyranny." • 1765 • Tax on all paper items (licenses, newspapers, contracts, legal documents, etc.) • First attempt at direct taxation (raising money by directly taxing colonists) • Repealed; as an attempt to restore order
Without the official seal, documents were considered illegal • Could only obtain the seal by paying the tax • Contracts • Playing cards • Newspapers • Pamphlets
Road to the Revolution :Declaratory Act Details Colonists’ Response Worried colonists…what would come next? Strips away colonial independence – reality check of who is boss • 1766 • Parliament had the power to make laws for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever” (raise money, protect domestic business, etc.)
Road to the Revolution :Townshend Act The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is the part of the Bill of Rights which guards against unreasonable searches and seizures, along with requiring any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause. Details Colonists’ Response Unpopular in the colonies Resentment towards British soldiers/rule Boston Massacre (Paul Revere) • 1767 • Tax on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea • Unwarranted searches for smuggled goods (illegal search and seizure) • Repealed
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is the part of the Bill of Rights which guards against unreasonable searches and seizures, along with requiring any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause.
Order! Order! • British troops in colonial towns…Boston • To enforce the Townshend Act • Tax collection and search for smuggled goods • March 5, 1770 • British soldier engaged in a shouting/shoving match with a colonist • Crowds drew near
Order! Order! Boston Massacre • Raised voices and a dare (“Come on you rascals…Fire if you dare!”) created more commotion and shots were fired (by soldiers) killing five • Townshend Acts repealed (except tax on tea)
Road to the Revolution :Tea Act Details Colonists’ Response Unpopular in the colonies High cost and no choice in tea Continued to boycott goods, and smuggle tea Boston Tea Party • 1773 • British East India company allowed exclusive rights to sell tea directly to the colonists • Directly selling to colonists would mean cheaper tea, less smuggling and more tax revenue
Boston harbor is a teapot tonight! • Three ships arrive in Boston Harbor • Sons of Liberty: ships must leave • Governor: must pay tax for shipment • December 16, 1773 • Colonists disguised as Indians • Dump 340 chests of tea
Road to the Revolution :Coercive Act Details Colonists’ Response “Intolerable” Acts First Continental Congress Ban trade with GB Formation and preparation of militias • 1774 • Punishment for the Boston Tea Party
Coercive Acts (aka Intolerable Acts) • Spring 1774 • In response to the Boston Tea Party and to punish colonists… • Boston Harbor was closed • Massachusetts’ charter was canceled (no colonial assembly) • Royal officials accused of crimes were tried in GB • Quartering Act – requiring colonists to house British soldiers • Quebec Act – gave land to Quebec • Appointed governor (General Thomas Gage)
Colonists Speak Out James Otis taxation without representation is tyranny* • Power of the Crown and Parliament was limited • “they can not take from any man any part of his property, without his consent in person or by representation” = *absolute power
Who is speaking out? • James Otis (taxation without representation is tyranny) • Samuel Adams (no taxation without representation) • Sons of Liberty • “I look upon (British soldiers) as foreign enemies” • Patrick Henry (Stamp Act) • Daughters of Liberty (Townsend Act) • Paul Revere (Boston Massacre) • “The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street”