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New England Colonies

New England Colonies

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New England Colonies

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  1. New England Colonies

  2. New England Economy • Not much commercial farming – rocky New England soil • New England harbors • Fishing/Whaling • Whale Oil • Shipping/Trade • Heavily Forested • Lumber • Manufacturing • First factories • Rum • Made from Molasses • Largest industry in America after 1664 • New York, Boston • Some estimates had every American drinking 3 gallons/yr. • Shipbuilding

  3. New England Colonies • Massachusetts • Plymouth—1620 • Massachusetts Bay Colony—1629 • Connecticut • Rhode Island • New Hampshire

  4. The Great Migration • In the 1620’s, England began to experience an economic downturn • High unemployment • Charles I raises taxes • Church of England began to punish Puritans because they were critical of the church. • More than 40,000 Englishmen immigrated to the colonies in the Caribbean and New England between 1630 and 1640.

  5. Massachusetts Bay Colony • 1629--Massachusetts Bay Company granted a charter by Charles I • Company Colony – owned by stock-holders • All stocks were eventually bought by Puritans and decided to move company to America • Led by John Winthrop, over 1000 Puritans sailed to Massachusetts to establish an ideal Christian community in New England. • “City on a hill” • First land in Salem, then Boston • Colony grows and prospers • Well prepared for the task • Little resistance from Indians • Trade with Plymouth • Healthier climate than Virginia John Winthrop

  6. Massachusetts Bay • Company Charter provided more freedom than royal charter in Virginia • Provided that a General Court in Massachusetts would make laws, and elect a governor and other officials • Families, and later towns, would send representatives to the General Court • Only male church members were eligible to vote • This created a Theocracy – government ruled by, or subject to, the church

  7. Salem Witch Trials • In the early 1690’s, a group of girls accused people, mostly women, of casting spells on them. • Special Courts were formed to conduct witchcraft trials, often marked by hysteria • Accused were often pressured to confess • Trials led to the execution of 19 people for witchcraft • Within a year, officials regretted the trials and apologized for the actions of the Salem Court. Painting by Thomas Slatterwhite Noble

  8. Connecticut • Some colonists disagreed with the church’s influence on government • Minister Thomas Hooker believed that any property owner should be eligible to vote, regardless of church membership • In 1636, Hooker and 100 of his followers were granted permission to leave Massachusetts to create a new settlement - Connecticut • Proprietary colony – owned by one or more individuals • 1639—Fundamental Orders of Connecticut made the government more democratic • Possibly the first written Constitution in the Western World • Acknowledges individual rights of man and government’s job to protect them • Men who were not church members were allowed to vote • General Courts/Assemblies are developing representative government • Still part of Connecticut’s Constitution

  9. New Hampshire • The English crown granted land to Captain John Mason and others in 1623 • Proprietary colony • Sent 2 groups of settlers to the new territory to create a fishing colony • Little Harbor, Dover • Mason died in 1635 before ever arriving in N.H. • Made agreement in 1641 to join Massachusetts Bay Colony for protection • Became a royal colony in 1679 – under control of the crown

  10. Rhode Island • Founded by Puritan minister Roger Williams • Disagreed with leaders in Massachusetts • Believed in “Soul-Liberty” – people should have right to opinion on religious matters • “Wall of Separation” between church and politics • Promoted religious tolerance • Wanted to deal fairly with Indians • Exiled from Massachusetts and settled to the south in Providence in 1644 • Given land by Natives • Proprietary Colony • Anne Hutchinson • Challenged church leaders • Banished in 1637 and founded Portsmouth in Rhode Island Roger Williams