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New England Colonies. 1620 - 1700. Themes. Motivations for traveling; religion was important Early histories and life in Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony New England society Interaction between Native Americans and colonists in New England. Major Religions in Europe (1560).

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themes
Themes
  • Motivations for traveling; religion was important
  • Early histories and life in Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • New England society
  • Interaction between Native Americans and colonists in New England
major religions in europe 1560
Major Religions in Europe (1560)
  • In 1530s King Henry VIII of England established Anglican Church (Church of England)
religion in england puritans
Religion in England (Puritans)
  • Puritans’ Goals:
  • Purify the Church of England to eliminate corrupting Catholic influences
  • Membership should be limited only to an elect view who had undergone a conversion experience
religion in england pilgrims
Religion in England (Pilgrims)
  • Pilgrims’ Goals:
  • Agree with goals of Puritans, but were radicals
  • Believed they must separate from the Anglican church in order to practice their religious beliefs.
pilgrims in england
Pilgrims in England
  • Being to radical, Queen Elizabeth exiled the Pilgrims
  • Some went to Germany, Netherlands, and France before returning to England in 1615
destination plymouth
Destination: Plymouth?
  • In 1614, Plymouth Company hired John Smith to give them a start
  • Smith travels up and down the coast and writes, “A description of New England”
  • Encourages people to settle there
pilgrims take action
Pilgrims Take Action
  • Negotiated with Plymouth Company to establish a settlement north of Virginia
  • Mayflower sets sail in October 1620
  • Lands at Plymouth Plantation in December 1620
  • It had been a site of a former Indian tribe which had been abandoned because of disease
  • Signed the Mayflower Compact

- When we establish a colony, it will be governed by the rule of law and not the individual

mayflower compact
Mayflower Compact
  • Signed by all men on the Mayflower:
  • Declared their support for King James
  • Created a government to establish rules for the colony
  • Local government
  • Step towards self government in North America
plymouth
Plymouth
  • Late 1620 comes a harsh winter
  • The Pilgrims are beginning to find out that little grows on their land
  • Food supply begins to run low; first three months over half the Pilgrims die
  • Between winter and spring the Pilgrims realize there are others settled here as well
pokanoket tribe
Pokanoket Tribe
  • They do not want any enemies
  • They begin to teach the settlers how to plant crops in the soil by using fish oil as fertilizer
  • All the Pokanoket ask in return is help against a rival tribe
  • Pilgrims can provide guns
  • August 1621: Both launch an attack against the rival tribe
plymouth1
Plymouth
  • Included 24 families and 102 settlers
  • William Bradford was elected Governor 30 times
  • Two local Indians helped
  • In 1621 they celebrated following their first harvest; Thanksgiving
  • Remained very small, but important settlement in New England
early interaction with native americans
Early Interaction with Native Americans
  • Squanto – acted as interpreter because he was captured by fisherman and taken to Europe, helped them plant corn and squash, and negotiate an agreement with Massasoit
  • Massasoit – Wampanoag leader, signed a treaty of friendship with the Pilgrims
plymouth economy
Plymouth Economy
  • Puritans could not turn to farming
  • Farming does not make profit, can’t grow tobacco
  • The Puritans at Plymouth will turn to fishing and whaling and ships/lumber, furs
  • By 1630, thriving Puritan colonies in Massachusetts
  • This economic boom draws other Puritans from England
decline in real wages in england 1500 1700
Decline in Real Wages in England(1500 – 1700)
  • Living standards declined along with wages
  • Population increased and land became more scarce
english migration 1610 1660
English Migration (1610 – 1660)
  • Persecution in England by King Charles I in 1625 led to dramatic increase in settlement
  • By 1700 New England’s population was about 93,000
puritan diaspora 1630s 1640s
Puritan Diaspora (1630s – 1640s)
  • Puritans begin to expand in Mass

- Rhode Island, Connecticut, Salem, Boston

  • Boston- Major shipping business city. Transforms Boston’s harbor to one of the world’s most massive ports
colonizing new england 1620 16741
Colonizing New England(1620 – 1674)
  • Most important settlement was Boston by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630
  • Settlers here were given a charter to establish a self governing colony
  • About 700 arrived in 1630 in about 11 ships
massachusetts bay colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • John Winthrop – one influential leader
  • Advocated the Puritans to establish a “city upon a hill” after his sermon entitled “A Model of Christian Charity”
  • Served as Governor and held additional leadership positions
a model of christian charity
“A Model of Christian Charity”

Outlined the Goals of Puritan Settlers

  • Establish a religious utopia dedicated to the teachings of Christianity
  • To be successful, ALL would have to work together
  • If they succeeded, they would be a model for others; but if they failed, they would be shame to themselves and to God
  • Philosophy of: “Do whatever it takes”
church and state in new england
Church and State in New England
  • No separation of church and state
  • Taxes funded ministers’ salaries and churches

“Blue Laws:”

- Required church attendance; also prohibited drunkenness, card playing, public kissing, etc.

new england wealth
New England Wealth
  • 1620 – 1650 New England becomes the wealthiest region of the English colonies. How?
  • Predestination- leads Puritans to question salvation. Led them to believe in “Good Works”

- every moment that you are awake do what is necessary

- don’t waste money and buy expensive things be humble and save money

  • Puritans save money to provide for community and future generations
new england wealth1
New England Wealth
  • Puritan Work Ethic

- Treat your job as if it were your family

- A system that everyone has to abide to

  • Leads to modern day Capitalism
dissenters roger williams
Dissenters(Roger Williams)
  • Minister who called for separation of church and state
  • Declared the colony had no legal right to own land because they have no purchased it from the Native Americans
  • Banished in 1635; moved to “Providence” and began his own colony
  • Purchased the land from Native Americans inhabiting the area and received a charter from England to begin a settlement
  • Rhode Island practiced the first religious toleration in America
dissenter anne hutchinson
Dissenter (Anne Hutchinson)
  • A mother of 14 children
  • Arrived in Mass in 1634 and began preaching in her home
  • It very uncommon for women to hold any prayer meetings or be the head of a religious group at that time
  • Challenged the authority of ministers and was placed on trial
  • Declared she had received revelations from God
  • New England’s Puritans believed Hutchinson’s statements to be heresy.
anne hutchinson and gender
Anne Hutchinson and Gender
  • One critic commented, “You have stepped out of your place; you [would] have rather been a husband than a wife, a preacher than a hearer; and a magistrate than a subject.”
dissenters williams and hutchinson
Dissenters: Williams and Hutchinson
  • Many of New England’s residents relocated to practice their religion freely
  • That was however not the case
  • If people were not of Puritan faith, they were persecuted or banished
  • The people that were persecuted went on to establish colonies of their own to practice their own religion
native americans pequot war 1636 1637
Native Americans (Pequot War, 1636 – 1637)
  • Tension developed between Pequots and colonists as the English expanded into Connecticut
  • Pequots, who were dominant in the fur trade, were being threatened by English expansion
  • Colonists from Massachusetts and Connecticut attacked the Pequot Village in Mystic
  • About 400 Pequots died as the village was burned
  • Ended Pequot resistance to English expansion
native americans in colonies
Native Americans in Colonies
  • Indian populations drop dramatically

- From about 125,000 in 1600 to 10,000 in 1675

  • English settlement continued to expand
  • Wild animals were replaced by domesticated animals
  • Another conflict emerged by 1670s
native americans king phillip s war 1675 1676
Native Americans (King Phillip’s War, 1675 – 1676)
  • Metacom known as King Phillip
  • Son of Massasoit (an ally of the Pilgrims)
  • Attempted to form an Indian alliance against English
  • Over 50 towns in English settlements were attacked and burned
native americans king phillip s war 1675 1678
Native Americans (King Phillip’s War, 1675 – 1678)
  • English retaliated by destroying stores of food and burned down villages
  • English formed alliances with other Indians tribes (Mohawks)
  • Metacom was killed and Indians were defeated
  • Effectively ended Indian resistance in New England which meant expansion without resistance
  • Indian women and children were sold into slavery
king phillip s war aftermath 1678 1690
King Phillip’s War (Aftermath; 1678-1690)
  • Crisis of religion in Puritan society
  • Won the war; God is on our side
  • We must be ever vigilant for evil in our community
  • Look out for the devil in our homes and towns
  • Puritans now fearful of everything that is odd
salem massachusetts
Salem, Massachusetts
  • Located in the northern region of New England Colony
  • By 1690, 2nd largest port in the region
  • The area of Salem was made up of two settlements
  • Salem Village and Salem Town
  • Salem Town being the more wealthy – port and farm land
witchcraft background
Witchcraft: Background
  • Similar to most Europeans, Colonists believed in wizards and witchery
  • Before 1690s there had been some witchcraft accusations but none of importance
  • Witchcraft hysteria grew in Salem (1692)
salem witch trials 1692
Salem Witch Trials (1692)
  • In April, several girls began to act strangely
  • All trails led to Tituba, an African slave, and two others were accused of witchcraft; accusations began to grow
  • Over 300 were accused of witchcraft and 20 were executed
  • 2 dogs were executed
salem witch trials 16921
Salem Witch Trials (1692)
  • If accused –

1. accusation atomically meant guilty verdict

2. Guilty verdict meant execution

3. To avoid execution, a confession was needed

salem witch trials how could this happen
Salem Witch Trials (How could this happen?)
  • If one was to look at the map of Salem most accusations took place in Salem Village
  • Social Class/Income – Accusers tended to be from Salem Village; a poorer region
  • Puritan’s goal was to be “A City Upon a Hill”

- Dissenters had previously been dealt with harshly

- Witches interfered with success of Puritans

goals of puritan settlers
Goals of Puritan Settlers
  • Establish a religious utopia dedicated to the teachings of Christianity
  • To be successful, ALL would have to work together
  • If they succeeded, they would be a model for the colonies. If they failed they would bring shame to themselves and to God
review
Review
  • Religion was an important factor for settlement in New England colonies
  • Puritan’s Goals: City Upon a Hill (model for others)
  • Native Americans continued to resist expansion in the New England area until King Phillip’s War