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Psychosocial Development Chapter 3. Freudian Theory Eriksonian Theory. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).

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psychosocial development chapter 3

Psychosocial DevelopmentChapter 3

Freudian Theory

Eriksonian Theory

sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)

An Austrian physician, Freud, developed psychoanalysis, a theory of personality based on the idea that the conscious mind is like the tip of an iceberg, and a vast unconscious area exists below the surface containing repressed thoughts, impulses, and desires. These unconscious forces influence behavior. Freud said that mental disorders are caused by a repression of unconscious sexual and aggressive drives.

freud s model of the mind the id
Freud’s Model of the Mind: The Id
  • The id is the original source of personality, present in the newborn infant. The ego, and then the superego, develop later.
  • The id motivates behavior and provides the energy source (libido) for the operation of the id, ego and superego.
  • It consists of a collection of basic instincts or biological drives (particularly the sexual and aggressive drives) that are the source of libidinal energy.
freud s model the id continued
Freud’s Model: The Id, continued
  • The id is buried at the deepest level of your unconscious mind, far removed from conscious reality.
  • The id operates on the pleasureprinciple: It seeks to avoid pain and obtain pleasure regardless of any external considerations.
  • The id engages in wishfulfillment, a process by which the id attempts to reduce tension by forming a mental image of its desires.
freud s model of the mind the ego
Freud’s Model of the Mind: The Ego
  • The ego is the executive of the personality. It decides what actions are appropriate. It determines which id instincts will be satisfied, and in what manner.
  • The ego operates on the realityprinciple; its role is to test images for their reality.
  • According to Freud, the ego's job is so difficult that at times the mind unconsciously resorts to psychological defenses.
freud s model the superego
Freud’s Model: The Superego
  • The super-ego is the internalized representation of the values society and moral standards that are taught to the child by parents and others.
  • Initially, parents control a child’s behavior directly through rewards and punishments.
  • Through the incorporation of parental standards into the super-ego, behavior is gradually brought under self-control.
freud s model the superego cont
Freud’s Model: The Superego, cont.
  • The super-ego is composed of two parts:
    • The conscience, which incorporates all the things the child is punished or reprimanded for doing. The conscience punishes by making the person feel guilty.
    • The egoideal, which incorporates those actions the child is rewarded for doing. The ego-ideal rewards by making the individual feel proud.
  • The superego develops slowly (around age 4) and at an unconscious level. It slowly gains the power to criticize and supervise the id and ego.
ego defense mechanisms
Ego Defense Mechanisms
  • Denial: Denying a problem exists
  • Repression: Unconscious forgetting
  • Rationalization: Justifying behavior
  • Projection: Transferring blame
  • Reaction Formation: Developing new personality traits
denial
Denial?

Failing to take seriously warning of health risks from cigarette smoking can be considered a form of denial. The ego fends off anxiety by preventing recognition of the true nature of the threat.

ego defense mechanisms cont
Ego Defense Mechanisms, cont.
  • Regression: Reoccurring behaviors that have been outgrown
  • Displacement: The transfer of emotions produced in one situation to another situation
  • Sublimation: The channeling of energy away from an impulse that causes anxiety (e.g., sexuality) and into a form considered admirable by one’s society.
  • Compensation: Defenses against feelings of inferiority
your turn
Your Turn!

Jake has violent impulses. Rather than express them directly, he gets a job dismantling wrecked cars. This is an example of:

  • sublimation.
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.
your turn1
Your Turn!

Jake has violent impulses. Rather than express them directly, he gets a job dismantling wrecked cars. This is an example of:

  • sublimation.*
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.
freud s psychosexual stages oral stage birth 1 year
Freud’s Psychosexual StagesOral Stage (birth-1 year)
  • crisis: birth; also, weaning brings on a period of frustration and conflict. It is the child's first experience with not getting what he/she wants.
  • focus: oral activities such as sucking and swallowing, thumb-sucking, nursing, biting, crying, tasting, vocalization
  • fears: separation anxiety; fear of loss of an object or loss of love
freud s psychosexual stages oral stage birth 1 year1
Freud’s Psychosexual StagesOral Stage (birth-1 year)
  • adult behaviors: An oral character: erotic pleasures still obtained through the mouth: talking too much; liking to argue and be critical, being demeaning, boasting, or “mouthing off.” Over-eating, drinking, excessive smoking, nail-biting...the person is still trying to release libidinal energy through adult oral activities.
  • Oral-dependent personality: Easily fooled and craving attention
  • Oral-aggressive personality: Argumentative and sarcastic.
oral stage
Oral Stage

According to Freud, the child’s early encounters with the world are largely experienced through the mouth.

freud s psychosexual stages anal stage 18 36 months
Freud’s Psychosexual StagesAnal Stage (18-36 months)
  • crisis: delayed gratification; toilet training
  • focus: withholding or producing feces at the appropriate times; being clean
  • Children discover the pleasure they can obtain from their genitals, and thus become extremely aware of themselves and members of the other gender.
  • fear: being unclean; inappropriate
  • adult behaviors: excessive neatness, obstinacy, envy, miserliness (anal retentive); promiscuity, poor impulse control, spendthrift (anal expulsive), hand washing
freud s psychosexual stages phallic stage
Freud’s Psychosexual StagesPhallic Stage
  • crisis: awakening sexual desire for the opposite sex parent which violates the incest taboo, and is rejected by that parent.
  • focus: a desire to possess one parent and get rid of the other;
  • Oedipus Complex: castration anxiety; penis envy
  • fear: of being castrated
  • adult behaviors: Unresolved Oedipus/Electra complexes lead often to:
    • delayed marriage, marrying someone much older than self, and relating to that person as a father/mother figure
    • rage, abandonment, jealousy, loneliness, vanity, exhibitionism, sensitive pride, or narcissism. Freud believed that a detached, hostile, absent father or overly close mother prevent boys from detaching from mother at age 3. This causes heterosexuals to become homosexual. Boys grow up, identifying with mother, and seek a man as a replacement for self.
freud s psychosexual stages latency period age 6 puberty
Freud’s Psychosexual StagesLatency Period (age 6 - puberty)
  • crisis: identification with same sex begins during this "natural homosexual period" when children develop heroes and heroines of same sex to model themselves after. Wish to possess opposite-sexed parent is repressed.
  • focus: Focus on sexuality is reduced or sublimated. Sexual impulses are redirected into learning tasks. Peers become important; children turn their attention to developing skills needed for coping with the environment.
  • fear: Fear of the super-ego
freud s psychosexual stages genital stage puberty
Freud’s Psychosexual StagesGenital Stage (puberty)
  • : identification with same sex parent
  • focus: person engages heterosexual activities to release libidinal energy. At puberty, sexual energies activate all of the unresolved conflicts from earlier years.
  • adult behaviors: If all goes well through these stages, the person becomes a fully functioning adult. Per Freud, the personality is completely formed by adolescence.
psychoanalysis the therapy
Psychoanalysis, the Therapy
  • Developed by Freud at the turn of the 20th century.
  • Psychoanalysis is concerned with understanding how one's past conflicts influence current behavior.
psychoanalysis continued
Psychoanalysis, continued
  • It is based on the theory that psychological disturbances arise from anxieties rooted in unconscious conflicts (between the id, ego, and superego.
  • The goal is to uncover unconscious content.
  • It uses the technique of free association, where the patient verbalizes all thoughts and feelings that come to mind.
  • Patients recline on a couch during therapy, to encourage relaxation and a free flow of thoughts and images from the patient's unconscious.
slide24

Freud’s Consulting Room in LondonThe patient lay on the couch, and Freud sat on the chair at the left, out of view, in order to facilitate transference reactions in the patient.

psychoanalysis continued1
Psychoanalysis, continued
  • Patients must verbalize even painful and embarrassing thoughts which come to mind without censoring anything.
  • Thoughts are allowed to move freely from one association to the next.
  • The analyst looks for symbolic content, and the thread which connects the associations.
analysis of transference
Analysis of Transference
  • Transference – thepatient transfers to the therapist feelings that correspond to those the person had toward important persons in the past, especially in childhood.
  • The role of the psychoanalyst is to be ambiguous or impersonal to allow the patient to transfer to him or her feelings that relate to important past relationships with others.

e.g. The patient may view the analyst as a rejecting father or

overprotective mother, lover, friend, villain, hero.

  • Through this re-experiencing of relationships, the patient can learn better ways to relate to others, and is able to discontinue this automatic, unconscious way of relating.
analysis of resistance
Analysis of Resistance
  • During treatment, the patient may resist talking about certain topics.
  • Such resistance is said to reveal important unconscious conflicts.
  • It is a reaction to any attempt to bring repressed strivings and “fantasies” into awareness.
  • As the analyst becomes aware of resistance, he/she brings them to the patient's awareness so they can be dealt with realistically.
analysis of resistance cont
Analysis of Resistance, cont.
  • The patient is defending him or herself against the discovery of the unconscious material without being aware either of the material or of his resistance.
  • There are many reasons why a person may repress certain strivings.
  • He or she might be afraid of being punished, of not being loved, or of being humiliated if the repressed impulses were known to others (or to the self).
dream analysis
Dream Analysis
  • Freud considered dreams way to tap the unconscious.
  • He believed that during sleep the censoring function of the brain relaxed, so that forbidden desires, fears , conflicts, and wishes as well as other unconscious feelings are more freely expressed.
  • He distinguished between the

manifestcontent (remembered portion of the dream)

latentcontent (hidden, true meaning of the dream

of dreams)

psychoanalysis concluded
Psychoanalysis, concluded
  • Psychoanalysis is the exploration of long-forgotten childhood experiences.
  • It involves clarification and confrontation which help the individual become aware of the unconscious conflicts that are affecting his/her current behaviors.
  • Interpretation more explicitly links current behaviors to past events.
  • Working through helps the individual incorporate new insights into his or her personality.
your turn2
Your Turn!

In Freudian theory, the __________ operates on the reality principle; it’s role is to test images for their reality.

  • id
  • unconscious
  • ego
  • libido
  • superego
your turn3
Your Turn!

In Freudian theory, the __________ is the "executive" structure that is directed by the reality principle.

  • id
  • unconscious
  • ego*
  • libido
  • superego
your turn4
Your Turn!

Which Freudian concepts do these events suggest?

  • A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddy’s lap but refuses to kiss her mother.
  • a celibate priest writes poetry about sexual passion.
  • A man who is angry at his boss shouts at his kids for making noise.
  • A woman whose father was cruel to her when she was little insists over and over that she loves him dearly.
  • A 9-year-old boy who moves to a new city starts having tantrums.
your turn5
Your Turn!

Which Freudian concepts do these events suggest?

Answers:

  • A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddy’s lap but refuses to kiss her mother. The Oedipal/Electra complex
  • A celibate priest writes poetry about sexual passion. Sublimation
  • A man who is angry at his boss shouts at his kids for making noise. Displacement
  • A woman whose father was cruel to her when she was little insists over and over that she loves him dearly. Reaction Formation
  • A 9-year-old boy who moves to a new city starts having tantrums. Regression
your turn6
Your Turn!

Jake has violent impulses. Rather than express them directly, he gets a job dismantling wrecked cars. This is an example of:

  • sublimation.
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.
your turn7
Your Turn!

Jake has violent impulses. Rather than express them directly, he gets a job dismantling wrecked cars. This is an example of:

  • sublimation.*
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.
ego defense mechanisms1
Ego Defense Mechanisms
  • Divide into small groups (3to 5) people and discuss the examples on p. 87 of your text.
  • Decide which defense mechanism is represented in each case.
  • Put all group members names on one sheet of paper and turn in your answers for credit.
erik erikson 1902 1994
Erik Erikson(1902-1994)

Neo-Freudian Erik Erikson revised Freud’s stages of development and proposed eight major dilemmas that are universally experienced over the life course.

erikson s dilemmas
Erikson’s Dilemmas
  • A psychosocial dilemma is a conflict between personal impulses and the social world that effects development.
  • Each dilemma has a positive pole and a negative pole.
  • For optimal personality development, the person must resolve the dilemma primarily in the positive direction.
this first stage of life is infancy
This first stage of life is infancy.

Human babies are helpless.

erikson s stages stage 1 infancy
Erikson’s Stages: Stage 1 - Infancy

Trust vs. mistrust(the first year of life)

Virtue = Hope

Parents must maintain a supportive and nurturing environment. If the infants needs are met, the infant develops a sense of basic trust.

Mistrust is caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by parents who are cold, indifferent, unkind, or rejecting.

erikson s stages infancy
Erikson’s Stages: Infancy

Trust vs. mistrust, continued

  • A child who has learned trust is able to give and receive love, master fears, and feels secure and adequate as a person.
  • A mistrustful child harbors a suspicious view of the world, and feels isolated because of an inability to relate to others.
erikson s stages stage 2 early childhood
Erikson’s Stages: Stage - 2 Early Childhood

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

(ages 1- 3) Virtue= Will

  • As the toddler develops bowel and bladder control he or she also develops a healthy attitude toward being independent.
  • If parents encourage their child’s use of initiative and reassure the child when mishaps occur, the child will develop the confidence needed to cope with situations that require autonomy.
stage 2 early childhood
Stage 2: Early Childhood

Toddlers are learning to act on their own.

erikson s stages early childhood
Erikson’s Stages: Early Childhood
  • If the child is made to feel that independent efforts are wrong, then shame and self-doubt develop instead of autonomy.
  • If parents are controlling or critical of their child’s efforts, s/he may begin to feel ashamed of her/his actions and doubt her abilities.
erikson s stages stage 3 preschool
Erikson’s Stages: Stage 3-Preschool

Initiative vs. guilt

(ages 3-6) Virtue = Purpose

The child must discover ways to initiate actions on his or her own. If such initiatives are successful, guilt will be avoided.

stage 3 preschool age ages 3 6
Stage 3: Preschool Age(ages 3-6)

The child imitates adults, anticipates future roles, and develops an appropriate gender-role identity.

erikson s stages middle childhood
Erikson’s Stages: Middle Childhood

Industry vs. Inferiority

(ages 6-12) Virtue = Competence

The child must learn to feel competent, especially when competing with peers. Failure to achieve a sense of industry during middle childhood tends to result in a sense of inadequacy and inferiority.

stage 4 middle childhood
Stage 4: Middle Childhood

Children learn to get along with others and compete.

erikson s stages adolescence
Erikson’s Stages: Adolescence

Identity vs. role confusion

(ages 12-18) Virtue = Fidelity

The teen must develop a sense of role identity, especially in terms of selecting a future career. He or she works at refining a sense of self by testing roles, then integrating them to form a single identity.

erikson s stages adolescence1
Erikson’s Stages: Adolescence

An adolescent must establish a stable identity in preparation for experiencing intimacy in adulthood.

erikson s stages adolescence2
Erikson’s Stages: Adolescence
  • Erikson suggested that adolescents often experience an identity crisis - they worry about who they are.
  • This self-confrontation involves elements such as the awakening of sexual drives, the attainment of logical thought, and social concerns.
erikson s stages adolescence3
Erikson’s Stages: Adolescence
  • The desire to feel unique does battle with the wish to “fit in”.
  • To assert themselves, teens may rebel against authority figures, particularly parents.
  • Conversely, they may embrace a clannish group when overwhelmed with the pressure to establish a separate identity.
your viewpoint
Your Viewpoint

What are some major concerns of young adults (18-27 years of age)?

erikson s stages young adulthood
Erikson’s Stages: Young Adulthood

Intimacy vs. isolation

(ages 18-35) Virtue = Love

  • The adult’s formation of close friendships and romantic relationships is vital to healthy development.
  • Byintimacy, Erikson meant an ability to care about others and to share experiences with them.
erikson s stages young adulthood1
Erikson’s Stages: Young Adulthood

Failure to establish intimacy with others leads to a sense of isolation.

  • The person feels alone and uncared for in life.
  • This circumstance often sets the stage for later difficulties.
erikson s stages young adulthood2
Erikson’s Stages: Young Adulthood

Most young adults seek to establish meaningful relationships with others and look for a mate.

erikson s stages middle adulthood
Erikson’s Stages: Middle Adulthood

Generativity vs. stagnation

(ages 35-60) Virtue: Care

Adults need to develop useful lives by contributing to the world, such as by helping and guiding children. They may also make indirect contributions to the next generation, through writing books or constructing buildings, etc.

slide61
In a youth-oriented society, many middle-aged people are reluctant to give up their sense of being a young person.
your viewpoint1
Your Viewpoint

How would you like your life to be in old age? Is there anything you can do now to make this happen?

What do you fear most about growing old?

erikson s stages late adulthood
Erikson’s Stages: Late Adulthood

Integrity vs. despair

(age 60 on) Virtue = Wisdom

When reflecting on their lives, elderly people may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure. A life well spent will result in a sense of well-being and integrity.

erikson s stages late adulthood1
Erikson’s Stages: Late Adulthood
  • After the age of about 60 or so, developmental tasks include:
  • Accepting inevitable losses (death, youth, physical beauty, physical abilities)
  • Being able to relate to the past without regrets
  • Spending time doing things that people find meaningful
  • Finding new meaning in life when former sources are gone (children, careers)
  • Maintaining outside interests
  • Enjoying grandchildren
your turn8
Your Turn!

According to Erikson, failure to achieve a sense of industry during middle childhood tends to result in:

  • a sense of inadequacy and inferiority.
  • a failure to develop a sense of identity.
  • feelings of self-hatred that cannot easily be erased.
  • a sense of rebellion that caries into adulthood.
  • mistrust of others.
your turn9
Your Turn!

According to Erikson, failure to achieve a sense of industry during middle childhood tends to result in:

  • a sense of inadequacy and inferiority.*
  • a failure to develop a sense of identity.
  • feelings of self-hatred that cannot easily be erased.
  • a sense of rebellion that caries into adulthood.
  • mistrust of others.
your turn10
Your Turn!

Life satisfaction in old age seems to depend upon:

  • maintaining physically demanding occupational roles.
  • continued performance in roles considered important by society.
  • the system of social support maintained for people as they disengage from all activities.
  • spending time doing things that people find meaningful.
  • staying physically vigorous.
your turn11
Your Turn!

Life satisfaction in old age seems to depend upon:

  • maintaining physically demanding occupational roles.
  • continued performance in roles considered important by society.
  • the system of social support maintained for people as they disengage from all activities.
  • spending time doing things that people find meaningful.*
  • staying physically vigorous.
chap 3 review
Chap. 3 - Review
  • What did Freud say was the cause of mental disorders?
  • What was Freud’s model of the mind?
    • What do these structures represent?
  • When are the super-ego and conscious formed according to Freud?
chap 3 review1
Chap. 3 - Review
  • What are Freud’s five stages of personality development?
  • What is Psychoanalysis and what are the main techniques?
  • What are the eight stages of Erikson's theory of personality development?