Adolescence: Psychosocial Development Ages 11 to 18 What is the effect of social relationships on adolescents?
How do adolescents develop an identity? • Erikson • Identity vs. role confusion • “Who am I”
What are problems developing an identity? • Identity diffusion • Don’t know, don’t care • Few commitments to goals or values • Apathy • Foreclosure • Premature identity formation • Adopting parents’ or society’s roles and values rather than exploring their own • Moratorium • Postponing identity achievement decisions • College may be one way
In what areas do adolescents develop an identity? • Religious identity • Often similar to parents • Political identity • Often similar to parents • Vocational identity • Sometimes similar to parents • Adults often change vocations • Sexual (Gender) identity • Accepting socially approved roles and behavior of their gender • Gender identity disorder • (Now called “Gender Dysphoria”) • Does not identify with their biological sex
How do adolescents relate to adults? • Conflicts with parents • Peaks in early adolescence • More a sign of attachment rather than distance • Distant relationships ignore the other • Neglect • Can be destructive for teenagers • (Even though they want to feel independent)
How can a family develop closeness? • Four aspects of closeness • Communication • Can both talk openly? • Support • Do they rely on each other? • Connectedness • Emotional closeness • Control • How do parents exercise control? • Encourage or limit adolescent autonomy
How can a family develop closeness? (Cont.) • Parental monitoring • Monitoring of peers, friends, websites • Positive – When warm, supportive • Negative - When overly restrictive and controlling
Do you remember? • According to Erikson, what is the main goal of adolescence? • What happens when identity is not yet achieved? • Give an example of each of the three • What can build closeness in a family? • What is an example of parental monitoring?
What is the effect of peer pressure? • Conforming to friends in behavior, dress, and attitudes
What is the effect of friends? • Selection • Choosing friends with common values and interests • E.g. Academics, music, athletics • Facilitation • Friends encourage behavior similar to the peer group • Positive • Studying together, church, sports • Destructive • Skipping school, drinking, drugs
How do they learn about sex? • Peers • Strongly influence sexual behavior • Only half U.S. adolescents discuss pregnancy or STD’s before being sexually active • Parents • Underestimate need for information • Wait too long before talking about sex • School • Preferred by most parents • Sex education varies dramatically by nation • Abstinence-only programs • No significant impact on sexual activity • Does education change behavior? • Depends more on family, peers, and culture than classes
What about suicide? • Suicidal ideas (Ideation) • Ideas are common – completed suicides are not • Adolescents are less likely to kill themselves than adults are • Gender differences • More girls attempt suicide than boys • Boys are 4 times as successful • Methods • Males shoot themselves • Females use pills and hanging
Do you remember? • What is the effect of peer pressure? • What are the concepts of peer selection and peer facilitation? • What most strongly influences adolescent sexual behavior? • Which sex is most apt to complete a suicide? • Why do you think that is?
What about drug use and abuse? • Age • Widespread ages 10-25 then decreases • Drug use before 18 = best predictor of later drug use • 20% of adolescents never use drugs • Gender • Boys use more drugs more often than girls • “If I don’t smoke, I am not a man.”
What are the effects of drugs? • Tobacco • Slows down growth • Damages heart, lungs, brains, and reproductive systems • Dad’s emphysema • Alcohol • Heavy drinking may permanently impair memory • Damaged hippocampus • May impair self control • Damaged prefrontal cortex • Denial of problems • Problems get worse
What are the effects of drugs? • Marijuana • People who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to: • Drop out of school • Become teenage parents • Be unemployed • Affects: • Memory • Motivation
How can we prevent drug abuse? • Focus on friends and peers • First use is social • Delay first use • Younger when starting = more likely addiction • Massive ad campaigns • E.g. Smoking • Generational forgetting • Each generation forgets what previous generations learned • Drug users tend to be more emotional & less reflective • Interference with prefrontal cortex
Do drug scare tactics work? • Mayincrease drug use • Drugs seem exciting • Adolescents recognize exaggeration • Show a way to show defiance
Do you remember? • What ages is drug use most common? • What are the effects of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana? • What are useful strategies for preventing drug use? • What about scare tactics?