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Psychosocial Development

Psychosocial Development

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Psychosocial Development

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Psychosocial Development and Stress

  2. Psychosocial Health

  3. Socialization • Emergence of the self • Search for identity • Relationships with our environment & others

  4. Erickson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development • Infancy (0-12 mo) • Younger Years (1-3) • Early Childhood (3-5) • Middle Childhood (6-10) • Adolescence (11-18) • Early Adulthood (18-34) • Middle Adulthood (35-60) • Later Adulthood (60---)

  5. Infancy: Trust v. Mistrust • Is society trustworthy? • Focus on basic needs • Sense of hope, trust, security • Mistrust & insecurity

  6. Younger Years: Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt • Do I need help from others or not? • Sense of free will/free choice • Self-confidence, boundaries, sense of internal control • Pessimism, limited sense of abilities, doubt, loss of control

  7. Early Childhood: Initiative v. Guilt • Can I initiate successful activities with others? • Sense of purpose, value, imagination, cooperation, group abilities • Fear, guilt, sense of being unacceptable to others, dependence

  8. Middle Childhood: Industry v. Inferiority • Am I good at what I do? • Sense of competence, life skills, ability to relate appropriately to peers & form friendships • Social disorientation, inferiority, incompetence

  9. Adolescence: Identity v. Role Confusion • Who am I and what is my goal in life? • Physical maturation, emotional development, importance of peer group, sense of loyalty to self and others, sense of strengths & weaknesses • Lack of empathy or loyalty, identity confusion, rebellion, reduced sense of belonging

  10. Beyond Adolescence: Intimacy, Generativity v. Stagnation • What legacy will I leave? • Quality of human relations, willingness to relate to others on a deeply personal level, giving and sharing, commitment, guidance, introspection, wisdom, acceptance of death • Isolation, codependency, inability to find meaning in life, stagnation, bitterness

  11. Theoretical Foundations Of Stress

  12. Stress Pioneers • Walter Cannon • Hans Selye • A.T.W. Simeons

  13. Biological Stress Theories • General Adaptation Syndrome • Genetic-Constitutional Theories

  14. General Adaptation Syndrome • Homeostasis • Three-stage process • Alarm • Resistance • Exhaustion • Adaptive energy pool

  15. Genetic-Constitutional Theories • Nature or nurture? • Predisposing factors • Preset weaknesses • Response sensitivities • Diathesis-Stress Model

  16. Psychological Stress Theories • Psychodynamic Model • Learning Theories • Transactional Model

  17. Psychodynamic Model • Sigmund Freud • Anxiety • Signal • Traumatic • Conversion reaction

  18. Learning Theories • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning

  19. Transactional Model • Richard Lazarus • Stress: the relationship between demands and the power to deal with them without unreasonable or destructive costs • Reciprocal relationship between stress & health • Hassles v. stress

  20. Social & Cognitive Stress Theories • Conflict theories • Life-Change theories

  21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Survival • Safety • Belonging • Self-esteem • Intellectual achievement • Aesthetic appreciation • Self-actualization

  22. Rational Emotive Behavior Theory • Albert Ellis • Rational & irrational thinking • Self-preservation, happiness & self-actualization • Self-blame, procrastination & repetition • A<- B -> C • D -> E -> F

  23. A = activating event stressor B = belief rational (self-helping) irrational (self-defeating) C = consequence appropriate feelings exhaustion, inappropriate feelings D = disputing the irrational belief realistic? logical? helpful? value system? E = behaving in an effective manner behavior F = new feelings A,B,C’s of REBT