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Chapter 7: Psychosocial Development PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 7: Psychosocial Development

Chapter 7: Psychosocial Development

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Chapter 7: Psychosocial Development

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  1. Chapter 7:Psychosocial Development Theories explaining psychosocial development during the first two years of life Psychoanalytic Erikson Epigentic Attachment theory

  2. Freud: Oral and Anal Stages Oral Stage—1st stage, where infant obtains pleasure through sucking and biting Anal Stage—2nd stage, where anus becomes main source of gratification, i.e., bowel movements and the control of them

  3. 1st Stage—Trust vs. Mistrust basic needs need to be met with consistency, continuity, and sameness 2nd Stage—Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt basic desire to gain self-rule over their own actions and bodies and to feel ashamed if it doesn’t happen Erikson: Trust and Autonomy

  4. Through their interactions with others, children develop working models. Working model—set of assumptions used to organize perceptions and experiences

  5. Epigenetic Theory Each child is born with a genetic predisposition to develop certain traits that affect emotional development Temperament—“constitutionally based individual differences in emotion, motor, and attentional reactivity and self-regulation.” Three types of temperament Goodness of fit

  6. Research on Temperament: Nine Characteristics • activity level, rhythmicity, approach-withdrawal • Adaptability, intensity of reaction • threshold of responsiveness • quality of mood, distractibility • attention span

  7. Enduring emotional connection Proximity-seeking behaviors Contact-maintaining behaviors Three types of attachments Secure Insecure-ambivalent Insecure-avoidant Disorganized Attachment

  8. Measuring Attachment Strange Situation—lab procedure to measure attachment; observed are exploration of the toys (caregiver present) reaction to caregiver’s departure reaction to caregiver’s return

  9. Secure attachment • Explores freely using the care-giver as the base • May be distressed at separation • Always greets the care-giver in a warm way on return

  10. Insecure ambivalent • Resists active exploration • Preoccupied with care-giver • Shows separation anxiety • Resists as well as wants contact with care-giver on reunion

  11. Insecure-avoidant • Explores freely and shows no unconcern for the care-giver’s presence. • On reunion, ignores or actively avoids the presence of the care-giver

  12. Disorganized • Does not show any coherency in behavior. • Frozen or trance-like behavior • May move in slow motion or stereotyped behavior

  13. Emotional Development in Infancy In the first 2 years of emotional development, infants progress from simple reactions to complex patterns of social awareness

  14. The First Year Newborns’ first discernable emotions distress Contentment Later emotions (after first weeks) anger fear, expressed clearly by stranger warinessandseparation anxiety

  15. The Second Year New emotions appear pride shame embarrassment guilt

  16. Self-Awareness Foundation for emotional growth realization of individual distinctions At about 5 months begin developing a sense of self apart from mother 15-18 months the “Me-self” rouge experiment

  17. Pride and Shame Self-awareness becomes linked with self-concept early on Negative comments more likely to lead to less pride or shame Own pride can be more compelling than parental approval

  18. Social connections help us understand human emotions Social referencing The Development of Social Bonds