Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory • Believed that development is life-long. • Emphasized that at each stage, the person acquires attitudes and skills resulting from the successful negotiation of the psychological conflict. • Identified 8 stages: • Basic trust vs mistrust (birth - 1 year) • Autonomy vs shame and doubt (ages 1-3) • Initiative vs guilt (ages 3-6) • Industry vs inferiority (ages 6-11) • Identity vs identity confusion (adolescence) • Intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood) • Generativityvs stagnation (middle adulthood) • Integrity vs despair (the elderly)
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs. Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns what he/she can control to develop a sense of free will. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlerhood
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling regret for actions. Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood
Erikson’s Eight Stages • Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires • social identity • personal identity Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan Integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood
Applying Erikson’s Theory in the Primary School • Industry vs inferiority (ages 6-11) • Identity vs identity confusion (adolescence)
Industry vs. Inferiority • In the early school years, students develop a sense of industry. • They begin to see the relationship between perseverance and the pleasure of a job completed. • During this time, school places three important demands on children: • to master academic tasks, • to get along with others, • to follow the rules of the classroom.
Children who succeed at these developmental tasks • develop a sense of industry or competence • Children who fail at these tasks acquire a basic sense of inferiority: they believe and expect that they can’t do anything right.
How can teachers encourage industry? • make sure that students have opportunities to set and work toward realistic goals • Begin with short assignments and then move to longer ones. • Monitor progress by setting up progress checkpoints. • Teach students to set reasonable goals
Give students a chance to show their independence and responsibly • To do this you can: • Tolerate honest mistakes. • Assign students tasks such as distributing materials, monitoring the class and marking homework.
Provide support for students who seem discouraged. • Using individual charts and contracts that show student progress. • Keep samples of earlier work so that students can see their improvements. • Have awards for most improved, most helpful, most hardworking.
Identity vs. role confusion • The central issue for adolescents is the development of an identity that will provide the firm basis for adulthood. • The teenager must achieve an identity in occupation, gender roles, politics, religion (beliefs and values) and sex. • A well-developed identity gives on a sense of one's strengths, weaknesses, and individual uniqueness. • A person with a less well-developed identity is not able to define his or her personal strengths and weaknesses, and does not have a well articulated sense of self.