Psychosocial and Psychosexual Development Murat İlhanAtagun MD Department of Psychiatry YBU Medical Faculty
Erikson and Freud • Freud proposed psychosexual developmental stages • Erikson proposed psychosocial developmental stages
Psychosexual Development Stages • Based on the instinctual drives and libido • Five stages • Oral • Anal • Phallic • Latent • Genital
These stages are named as the erogenous zones of the stage • Behavior is oriented towards certain parts of his/her body, (ie. mouth during feeding) • Freud proposed that any frustration at a stage may cause anxiety or neurosis at adulthood • Adult neurosis is very related to childhood problems in psychosexual development • Fixation to a stage
Oral Phase • The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation.
Fixation • The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting.
Anal Phase • Primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. • The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. • Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. • Success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive. • Freud believed that positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults.
Fixation • Unfortunately, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children need during this stage. Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. • Inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. • If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. • If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
Phallic Phase • The primary focus of the libido is on the genitals.Children also discover the gender differences. • Boys begin to view their fathers as a rival (Oedipus complex) • The child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. • The term Electra complex has been used to described a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy.
Conflict • Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage. • Karen Horney disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Instead, Horney proposed that men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children.
Latent Phase • The libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. • The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests. • The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. • This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
Genital Phase • The individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. • This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life. • Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. • If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
Evaluation • The theory is focused almost entirely on male development with little mention of female psychosexual development. • His theories are difficult to test scientifically. Concepts such as the libido are impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be tested. The research that has been conducted tends to discredit Freud's theory. • Future predictions are too vague. How can we know that a current behavior was caused specifically by a childhood experience? The length of time between the cause and the effect is too long to assume that there is a relationship between the two variables. • Freud's theory is based upon case studies and not empirical research. Also, Freud based his theory on the recollections of his adult patients, not on actual observation and study of children.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development • Has brought a new dimension to psychology to understand human development from another psychosocial view. • This approach suggested eight stages that a healthily growing subject pass through with each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stage.
I. Infancy • Birth to 1 ½ years • Fastest growth period in life • Developmental Tasks 1. learn to eat solid food 2. begin to walk 3. begin to talk 4. developing trust • Trust vs. Mistrust
II. Early Childhood • Ages 2-3 • Developmental tasks 1. walk and talk more 2. potty trained 3. social independence develops 4. Sense of autonomy-need to control impulses, body, environment. C. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
III. Childhood • 4-5 years • Developmental tasks 1. initiate play with other kids 2. make-believe 3. ask questions 4. Learn initiative- the ability to start something on their own. C. Initiative vs. Guilt
IV. Late Childhood • 6 to 11 years • Developmental Tasks 1. learn physical skills for sports, games, etc. 2. intellectually- learn to read, write, do math 3. learn right from wrong 4. develop attitudes towards themselves and others. 5. develop sense of industry- make things- cookies, models, etc. C. Industry vs. Inferiority
V. Adolescence • Ages 9 – 13 & 14-17 • Beginning of adolescence • Become capable of reproducing • Secondary sex characteristics begin to develop • Second fastest period of growth • Hormones develop- estrogen & progesterone-girls & testosterone-boys
V. Adolescence G. Developmental Tasks 1. Form mature relationships 2. achieve a masculine or feminine social role 3. accept one’s physique and use one’s body effectively 4. Achieve emotional independence from parents and other adults 5. prepare for marriage and family life 6. prepare for career 7. acquire personal standards 8. develop social intelligence-aware of human needs-helping others 9. develop conceptual and problem-solving skills
VI. Young Adulthood • Generally age 20 to early 30’s- can start as young as 17. • Financially independent from parents • Can deal with everyday life trials with maturity • At peak of physical abilities- strength, quickness, alertness • Crucial life decisions made- marriage, career, children • Intimacy vs. Isolation
VII. Adulthood • 35-65 years • Start thinking in terms of what to do with the rest of their lives. • Feeling that time is running out • Start to face death of parents • Mid-life crisis common- divorce, career change, remarriage 1. some have not accepted middle age- can lead to problems adjusting 2. Their children may be going through adolescence, during this time which can add to conflict.
VIII. Late Adulthood • 65 and older • Retirement common • Senior citizen does not equate to old anymore. • Longer life expectancy- 85 and older common. • Better health practices than in the past. • Measures of Age 1. Chronological- How old you actually are 2. Biological- how well your body is holding upinfluenced by diet, exercise, lifestyle, heredity 3. Social- a person’s lifestyle G. Grandchildren become important H. Must face death
IX. Stages of Acceptance 1. Denial- “No not me”- can’t accept news of a death or their own imminent death. 2. Anger- “Why me?” Stage-resentment, sometimes leads to isolation, rejection 3. Bargaining- begins to accept reality, but bargains for more time by praying, other medical treatments, etc. 4. Depression-time of grieving for what the patient has already lost and will lose. Worries about family, money, fells sense of great loss.-Encourage him or her to grieve 5. Acceptance – Allows for action and facing reality in a constructive way. Closure is important. Not a happy stage, but not helpless either.