Unit One. Chapter One Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4. Chapter Two Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4. Chapter Three Section 1 Section 2 Section 3. Chapter 1. Section 1: Converging Cultures. The Earliest Americans. How early did humans arrive to the Americas?
Unit One Chapter One Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Chapter Two Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Chapter Three Section 1 Section 2 Section 3
Section 1: Converging Cultures
The Earliest Americans How early did humans arrive to the Americas? No one knows for sure. 10,000 years ago. 30,000 years ago. Originally these people were nomads. Soon they developed into permanent settlements. Civilization in the Americas was born.
The Earliest Americans The first civilization to develop in the Americas was the Olmec in Mexico. Followed by Aztecs and Maya. 300 AD – Hohokam civilization begins in Arizona.
Columbus Christopher Columbus An Italian sailing for Spain searching for a route to Asia. 1492 – Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. He landed on modern-day San Salvador Island. He believed he was in Asia.
Other Expeditions Europeans learn that America is not Asia. They name the new land America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. 1494 – treaty gives Spanish rights to most of these new lands. Conquistadors defeat many native tribes and begin building an empire.
Other Expeditions How are the Spanish able to defeat the native people? 1521 – Hernan Cortez defeats the Aztecs. 1532 – Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca.
Cultural Exchanges Native Americans introduce Europeans to new things. Foods like corn, squash, pumpkins, chocolate, and chewing gum. Canoes, snowshoes, and ponchos. Europeans introduce Native Americans to… Wheat, rice, coffee, bananas, citrus fruits, and domesticated livestock.
Cultural Exchanges Europeans also bring some not so positive things. Germs – influenza, measles, chicken pox, typhus, smallpox. With no immunities millions die. Military conquests cost them their lives, land, and way of life.
More Expeditions French and British begin explorations to the new world. England sends John Cabot (discovers Canada in 1497). Jacques Cartier sails for France. They do not establish successful colonies unitl the 1600s.
New France 1608 – Samuel de Champlain founded the outpost of Quebec. Fur trade with natives begins. Soon the French begin to expanding to the south. Explore to the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico. Name the area Louisiana. Founded New Orleans. They begin growing sugar cane, rice and tobacco. Begin to import slaves for labor.
Jamestown Jamestown Founded in Virginia. Source of raw materials and outlets for British goods. Colony prospers by growing tobacco. 1619 – Colonists form a House of Burgesses to make their own laws.
Plymouth Colony King James persecuted a group of Puritans. They were called separatists because they wanted to be separate from the Anglican church. They sought religious freedom. 1620 The Pilgrims set sail on the Mayflower. Upon arrival they draft the Mayflower Compact. They befriended the local Wampanoag people and had a harvest celebration – the first Thanksgiving. Ten years later the Massachusetts Bay Colony is formed.
New England Grows Religious dissention leads to other colonies. Roger Williams gets banned from Massachusetts. Heads south and founds the town of Providence. Anne Hutchinson joins him. 1644 – The colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is formed. 1679 – colony of New Hampshire forms.
New England Grows Reverend Thomas Hooker Disagreed with policy that only churchgoers could vote. Moves his congregation to Connecticut valley. Adopt America’s first written constitution – Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – allowing all adult men to vote and hold office.
New England Life Puritan town life Towns included a meetinghouse (church), school, and marketplace. During town meetings locals would discuss problems. This would lead to the creation of a local government. People begin to believe in their right to self-government.
Issues With Natives 1637 – War breaks out between English and the Pequot. Pequot nearly exterminated. 1670s – Colonial governments demand that Natives follow English laws and customs. 1675 – Plymouth Colony executes three Wampanoag for murder. King Philip’s War – named after Wampanoag leader Metacomet. 1678 – Few natives left in New England.
The Middle Colonies Dutch – Make claims to land south of Connecticut. Henry Hudson – discovers the Hudson River Valley in New York. New Netherland on Manhattan Island.
Changes Charles II of England – Seizes New Netherland. Gives it to his brother and part of it is renamed New York. The rest becomes New Jersey.
William Penn William Penn His colony would have religious freedom and people would have a voice in government. Would help fellow Quakers escape persecution. They objected to mandatory taxes and military service. Oppose violence as a means to settle disputes. Penn’s colony will be named Pennsylvania. Land on the coast in the east will become Delaware.
The Southern Colonies Tobacco is king. Virginia and Maryland are proprietary colonies. Owned by an individual who could govern it any way they wanted (appoint officials, coin money, impose taxes, raise an army). George Calvert – owner of Virginia. Makes Virginia a refuge for Catholics. Most that come are Protestant.
The Southern Colonies Toleration Act (1649) – Maryland. Grants religious toleration to all Christians in the colony. Charles II gives some land to eight men. This land is known as Carolina. Soon becomes – North and South Carolina. Georgia Started by James Oglethorpe as a colony where England’s poor could start over.
Southern Life Agriculture is the main focus. Many in England become indentured servants. People who signed contracts with colonists to receive free passage in return for four or more years of work, food, clothing, and shelter. Reliance on African slaves grow.
Crisis Over Land More people want land. There’s not enough land for everyone. Why? Most opposed expansion because they did not want to risk war with the natives. Bacon’s Rebellion – Nathaniel Bacon Leads to westward expansion in Virginia. More reliance on slaves and slave trade. They no longer have to be freed.
Section 2: A Diverse Society
Growth of the Colonies Population of the colonies grow. High birth rates and improved housing and sanitation. Disease (typhoid, tuberculosis, cholera) remain a problem. Triangular Trade Trade between the colonies, England, Caribbean sugar planters, and Africa.
Growth of the Colonies Social Hierarchy Wealthy Merchants. Artisans (skilled workers), innkeepers, shop owners. Lower class – No skills, no property. Indentured servants. Slaves.
Immigration Hundreds of thousands of people come to the colonies. Germans – escaping religious wars. Scots-Irish – escaping high taxes, religious discrimination. Jews – religious reasons as well.
Women Women do not have equal rights. At first, women could not: Own property Make contracts or wills Husbands: Were sole guardians of children. Allowed to physically discipline children and wives. Single women had more rights.
Slaves Between 1450 and 1870 10 to 12 million Africans were enslaved and sent to the Americas. About 2 million died in route. Referred to as the Middle Passage.
Slaves 1775 540,000 slaves in the United States (20% of population). Slave Codes – Kept slaves from: Owning property. Testifying against whites. Being educated. Moving about freely. Meeting in large groups.
Slaves Roots Slave Sale Video
Acts Charles II – Navigation Acts All goods shipped from the colony be on English ships. The Staple Act All colonial imports had to go through England. Increased price of goods in the colonies. Merchants begin smuggling products to Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa.
The Glorious Revolution King James II Catholic. People did not want a Catholic dynasty. James’s Protestant daughter Mary claims the throne with her husband William. Known as the “Glorious Revolution.” Suggest that revolution is justified when individual rights were violated.
The Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment John Locke – People are not born sinful. Their minds are blank slates that society and education could shape for the better. Rousseau – Government should be formed by the consent of the people who would make their own laws. Montesquieu – Three types of political power – executive, legislative, and judicial. Should be divided into three branches to protect the liberty of the people.
The Great Awakening The Great Awakening Widespread resurgence of religious fervor. All people are equal before God. Baptists, Presbyterians, and Methodists embrace new ideas. The Enlightenment and Great Awakening incline Americans towards political independence.
Section 3: The American Revolution
French and Indian War French and Indian War Fighting between British and French in frontier. Natives allied with the French. Treaty of Paris (1763) The British triumph. Treaty gives British all French territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. Also gain Florida from Spain.
Unpopular Regulations Proclamation of 1763 Tried to halt expansion into Native American lands. King George III wanted to avoid another war with natives. Colonists wanted access to the Ohio River Valley. Customs Controls Sugar Act of 1764 – raised taxes on sugar, molasses, silk, wine, and coffee. Quartering Act of 1765 – colonists had to provide shelter for British troops. Stamp Act of 1765 – required stamps to be bought and placed on printed materials.
Unpopular Regulations Stamp Act Congress Only representatives elected by the colonists had the right to tax them. “No taxation without representation.” When the Stamp Act took effect, colonists ignored it and boycotted British goods. Stamp Act is repealed.
Townshend Acts Townshend Acts New customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea. March 5, 1770 – Boston Colonists began taunting a British soldier guarding a customs house. British troops opened fire and killed five colonists. Known as the Boston Massacre. Townshend Acts repealed except the one on tea.
Tea Act Tea Act Favored British East India company. American merchants outraged. Boston – 150 men dump 342 chests of tea overboard – Boston Tea Party. Coercive Acts Used to punish Massachusetts. One law shut down Boston’s port until tea was paid for. 2,000 troops stationed in New England. Referred to as the Intolerable Acts.
First Continental Congress First Continental Congress Protest the Intolerable Acts. Approved a plan to boycott British goods.
Revolution Revolution begins in Massachusetts. Minute-men – men who were trained and ready to go at a minute’s notice. Some colonists still felt a loyalty to the King. Called “Loyalists” or “Tories.” Those who thought the British were tyrants? “Patriots.”
Revolution April 18, 1775 – British troops set out from Boston heading for Concord. Old North Church – “One if by land, two if by sea.” Messengers carry word ahead of them – Paul Revere. Lexington First shot of the war (the Shot Heard ‘round the World).
Revolution Second Continental Congress Adopted the “militia.” Chose George Washington as commander. Successes of the militia builds American confidence.
Independence Olive Branch Petition Sent to King George III to resolve grievances peacefully. He rejected it. Thomas Payne – Common Sense King George III is a tyrant – time to declare independence. July 4, 1776 Congress issues the Declaration of Independence. The colonies are now the United States of America. American Revolution officially started.
Independence Continental Army (Video) (Video) Could not match the British in size and funding. They were fighting on home ground. Also made use of unconventional, guerilla tactics.
Victory Yorktown Last major battle (1781). British General Cornwallis surrendered. The war ends. Treaty of Paris British recognize the United States. Mississippi River is the western border.
Section 4: The Constitution
Something New Creating a Republic Power resides with citizens. Citizens entitled to vote. Power exercised by elected officials. Elected officials responsible to the citizens. Must govern according to a constitution. All people are equal under the law. What about women and slaves?
State Constitutions State Constitutions Call for separation of powers among executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Bi-cameral legislatures. List of rights guaranteeing essential freedoms.
Societal Changes Changes in Society Greater separation of church and state. Expanded voting rights – any white male taxpayer. Women gain greater access to education and the ability to get a divorce. Many northern states begin to gradually abolish slavery.
National Government Articles of Confederation United the states under a single governing body – Congress. Congress has very limited powers. Americans do not want to risk a government that becomes tyrannical. Congress Could negotiate with other nations, raise armies, and declare war. Could not regulate trade or impose taxes.
National Government Problems with the Articles States did not have uniform trade policies. Country falls into recession because Congress could not collect taxes to pay debts. States issued their own currency which lost value and weakened the economy. Shays’s Rebellion Poor farmers protest new taxes. Led by Daniel Shays. Convinces people of the need for a stronger central government.
Constitutional Convention May 1787 – Philadelphia 55 delegates (from all states except Rhode Island) meet. Articles are abandoned. George Washington chosen as presiding officer. Agreements Stronger national government. Power to levy taxes and make laws. Government divided into three branches.
Constitutional Convention Debate – Representation Large states want representation based on population. Small states feared they would be outvoted. Each state should have an equal vote. Great Compromise Congress divided into two houses. House – representation determined by population. Senate – each state would have equal representation. House elected by the people; Senate elected by state legislatures.
Constitutional Convention Who is counted towards population? Slaves? Three-Fifths Compromise Every five slaves would count as three persons.
Framework of Government Popular Sovereignty Rule by the people. Representative system of government. Federalism Power is divided between national and state. Separation of Powers Legislative – Congress (House and Senate) would make laws. Executive – President would enforce laws. Judicial – Courts would interpret laws and render judgments.
Constitutional Convention Checks and Balances Prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful. What if the Constitution needed to be revised? A process is created to add amendments to the Constitution.
Ratification Constitution sent to the states for ratification 9 of 13 states needed. Debates begin Supporters were called Federalists. Opponents were called Anti-Federalists.
Ratification Opposition in Massachusetts Constitution failed to safeguard individual rights. Federalists promised a Bill of Rights (first ten amendments) . June of 1788 Nine states have ratified. Virginia and New York (30% of population) had not. Could new government succeed without their support.
Ratification Compromise is reached in Virginia and New York. May 1790 All states had ratified the new Constitution. George Washington is chosen as the new president.
Section 1: The New Republic
Building A Cabinet The first cabinet consisted of: Department of State – Thomas Jefferson. Department of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton. Attorney General. Supreme Court John Jay – First Chief Justice.
Financial Troubles Government inherited a huge debt. Alexander Hamilton Proposes plan to pay off all debts including state debts. Calls for the creation of a national bank. Establishing a bank not an enumerated power – specifically mentioned in the constitution. It was needed – “necessary and proper” – so the government could collect taxes and provide for the common defense.
D.C. District of Columbia Hamilton gets approval after agreeing to put the nation’s capital in the South. First bank established for twenty years.
Whiskey Rebellion 1791 Congress enacts an unpopular tax on whiskey. Whiskey Rebellion 13,000 troops used to crush the Whiskey Rebellion in the west. (Video4:10)
Rise of Political Parties Federalists Hamilton supporters. Strong national government led by the rich. Manufacturing and trade were key. Democratic-Republicans (Republicans) Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Favored strict limits on federal government and protection of states’ rights. Agriculture was the key.
Washington’s Farewell Address George Washington Warned of the dangers of party politics and sectionalism (North against South and East against West). Steer clear of alliances with any part of the foreign world.
Alien and Sedition Acts The Federalist majority in Congress resented Republican criticism. Pass the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 One law made it a crime to say or print anything false or scandalous against the federal government or official. Also made it harder for aliens (foreigners) to gain citizenship – they usually voted Republican.
Election of 1800 Federalists John Adams vs. Republican Thomas Jefferson Republican Aaron Burr ran for vice president. Jefferson wins the election. Flaw: Constitution does not allow citizens to directly vote for president. Instead, each state chooses electors.
Election of 1800 Continued… Each elector would cast one vote for president and one for vice president. The intent was for one elector not to vote for vice president to avoid a tie. When votes were counted Jefferson and Burr each had 73 votes. Federalist controlled house then had to choose a president. Jefferson is chosen. 12th Amendment: separate ballots for president and vice-president.
Westward Expansion Napoleon Bonaparte of France Offers to sell the Louisiana Territory to finance his plans for European conquest. Louisiana Purchase The United States pays $15 million for the territory. Land area = 828,000 mi2. Doubles the size of the country. Lewis and Clark Expedition (Video)
War of 1812 Causes British seizing American ships at sea. Impressment – kidnap sailors to serve in the British navy. British Burn the White House and the Capitol building in D.C. Bombard Baltimore Harbor.
War of 1812 Francis Scott Key (Video) Wrote the “Star Spangled Banner” after seeing the flag still flying at dawn. Treaty of Ghent (December 24, 1814) Ends the war with the U.S. victorious. January 8, 1815 General Andrew Jackson defeats the British in the Battle of New Orleans. (Video)
Section 2: The Growth of a Nation
Era of Good Feelings American Nationalism Americans begin to consider themselves to be part of a whole. Known as the “Era of Good Feelings.”
Federalists End of the Federalists Party Federalists lose influence after War of 1812 Republicans begin to believe that a stronger federal government was necessary. More and more join the Republican Party. By 1820 the Federalists Party is gone. 1820 election – all candidates are Republican.
Republicans Republican Programs Republicans have always opposed a national bank. Blocked the renewal of the first bank. Private banks issue own money. No national bank to regulate currency. Republicans change their minds Create the Second Bank of the United States. Bank given the power to issue notes that would serve as a national currency.
Tariff Protective Tariff Protect manufacturers from foreign competition. An influx of cheaper British goods after the War of 1812. A protective Tariff was a tax used to drive up the prices of imports.
Monroe Doctrine Nationalist Diplomacy Spanish ceded Florida to the United States. Spanish colonies in the Americas begin declaring their independence. Russia takes claim to Alaska and encroaches on the Oregon Country. President James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine. Declares that the American continents would no longer be subject to future colonization by European powers.
Transportation Transportation Revolution National Road (1806) – connected Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. Toll roads become popular. Rivers offer more efficient and cheaper way to move goods. Steamboat – allowed boats to travel upriver. Robert Fulton – first successful steamboat. Most important transportation innovation of time period – the train.
Industrial Revolution Industrialization begins in the Northeast Utilized waterpower. Use of interchangeable parts – popularized by Eli Whitney. Leads to mass production of goods. Innovations Sewing machine – inexpensive clothes could be mass produced. Canning – food storage with no spoilage. 1832 – Samuel Morse perfects the telegraph and develops Morse Code.
Immigration 1815 – 1860 5 million foreigners come to America. Many settle in cities providing a steady source of cheap labor. Not always welcomed. Nativism A preference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration. Movements to keep foreign-born and Catholics from holding office. Members of these movements become the Know-Nothings.
Factories 1860 1.3 million factory workers. Included women and children; worked for less. Factory workers got low pay and worked 12 hour days. Some begin to form labor unions but have little power.
Agriculture Agriculture is still king. South Few cities and less industry. Focus in south on crops like tobacco, rice, and sugarcane. Cotton is by far the biggest crop.
Agriculture King Cotton Tedious work – it took a worker an entire day to remove cotton seeds from one pound of cotton by hand. Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin – quickly removes the seeds from the pod. Cotton production soars and so does slavery. Saying: “Cotton is King.”
Slavery As cotton spreads so does demand for slaves. 1808 – Congress outlawed foreign slave trade. High birthrate – encouraged by slave owners – kept the population growing. Slave numbers increase from 1.5 million to 3.2 million. Slaves account for 37% of the south’s population. (Video1st 4 mins)
Slavery Role Most slaves worked in the fields on small farms. Some were house servants or worked in trades. Music and religion helped slaves endure the horrors of slavery. Resistance Work slow-downs, breaking tools, running away or violence.
Section 3: Growing Division and Reform
Westward People increasingly move west. Many states grow large enough to apply for statehood. Problems arise in Missouri.
Missouri Compromise 1819 Missouri applies for statehood. Issue: Should slavery expand westward. 11 free states and 11 slave states. A new state would upset the balance in the Senate. Northerners oppose expanding slavery – morally wrong. Southerners feared that with enough non-slave states the North could outlaw slavery.
Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise Missouri sought admission as a slave state. The following year Maine sought statehood. Senate decides to admit Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. Amendment added to prohibit slavery north of Missouri’s south boundary. Southerners agreed – northern areas unsuitable for farming. Problem: Missouri constitutional convention added a clause prohibiting free African Americans from entering the state. They later agreed not to enforce it.
Election of 1824 Four Republicans ran for president. Andrew Jackson led in popular and electoral votes. Did not have the majority of electoral votes needed. Decision went to the House who would pick the president from the three with the most votes. Henry Clay eliminated – also Speaker of the House. Clay supports John Quincy Adams. Adams wins easily and makes Clay his secretary of state.
Election of 1824 Jackson immediately protests. Jackson and his followers form the Democratic Republican Party or Democrats. This Democratic Party still exists today. Adams and his followers become known as National Republicans. Not modern Republicans.
Election of 1828 John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson Jackson won easily. Spoils System Appointing people to government jobs based on party loyalty and support. Opened up government to ordinary citizens.
Nullification Crisis South Carolina depends on manufactured goods from England. Tariffs make those goods expensive. A new tariff – the Tariff of Abominations – leads to South Carolinians threatening to secede. Nullification – states had the right to declare federal law not valid. 1832 Another tariff law was passed and South Carolina nullifies it. Jackson declares it treason and sent a warship to Charleston. Crisis averted: Congress passes a bill that would lower tariffs gradually.
Native Americans Jackson wants to ensure the survival of natives but also wants to keep them out of the way of white settlers. Indian Removal Act Helped states relocate Native Americans to places west of the Mississippi. Cherokee Tribe appeals to Supreme Court. Chief Justice agrees with them. Jackson does it anyway. President Martin Van Buren Sent in the army to forcibly remove the Cherokee. Trail of Tears – thousands of Cherokees died on the march westward.
New Party Jackson forces the Second Bank to end. In response, the Whig Party forms. Whigs wanted to expand the federal government.
Election of 1840 Whig candidate William Henry Harrison won easily. (Video30:23) Hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe and territorial governor of Indiana. He spoke at his inauguration for two hours in bitter cold with no coat or hat. He died one month later of pneumonia. Vice President John Tyler took over.
Second Great Awakening Religious leaders organize to revive Americans’ commitment to religion. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints – (Mormons) Endure harassment in the East and Midwest. Joseph Smith leads them west to settle in the Utah Territory – Salt Lake City.
Social Reform Reformers – many women. Saw the excessive use of alcohol as causing more crime, poverty, and family damage than any other vice. Temperance – moderation of the use of alcohol. Temperance groups form across the country. American Temperance Union forms. Many states pass prohibition laws. Other reforms: Penitentiaries – prisoners were to be rehabilitated. Public education – government funded schools open to all. (slaves?)
Women Women’s Movement Women still do not have the right to vote. Home was the proper place, the outside world was dangerous. Many seek better educational opportunities for girls. Seneca Falls Convention in New York (1848) Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Declaration of Sentiments – proposed a focus on women’s suffrage or right to vote. (Video)
Abolition Abolitionist Movement How could country remain true to its ideals of liberty and equality if it continued to enslave humans. Slavery seen as a sin. Early societies advocate gradual end to slavery to give the south time to adjust. American Colonization Society (1816) Encouraged African Americans to resettle Africa. Between 12,000 and 20,000 African Americans resettled the west coast of Africa. Became the nation of Liberia.
Abolition Later antislavery movements called for immediate emancipation. Frederick Douglas Former slave who published an anti-slavery newspaper called the North Star. Northern Opposition Northern whites feared abolition would bring a destructive war between the north and south. Southerners dependent on slaves and defend the institution.
Abolition 1831 – 50 whites were killed in Virginia in a slave rebellion – Nat Turner’s Rebellion. Southerners threatened to leave the union if the abolition movement was not suppressed. Abolitionists are not deterred.
Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis
Pushing West Manifest Destiny The idea that the nation was meant to spread to the Pacific. Many set their sights on Oregon and California. Popular routes to the West: Oregon Trail, California Trail, and Santa Fe Trail. Effects on Natives Plains Indians came to resent the settlers. Posed a threat to their way of life. They feared the loss of the buffalo herds. Treaty of Fort Laramie – the United States promised that defined territories would belong to Native Americans forever.
Texas Mexico initially encouraged people to settle the Mexican region of Texas. Tension – Americans refused to follow Mexico’s conditions for settlement. Sam Houston and Stephen Austin lead Texans in separating from Mexico and creating their own government. The Alamo. 1936 Texans defeat Mexico and soon voted in favor of joining the United States. They wanted to enter as a slave state. Texas finally gets statehood in 1945.
Oregon Territory U.S. and Britain decide to divide Oregon along the 49th parallel. This land later becomes Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.
War With Mexico Mexican government upset about Texas joining the Union. Debate over southern border of Texas. The U.S. tries to buy California but Mexico refuses. Lacking a diplomatic solution the two countries go to war. Northern California Settlers revolt declaring the Bear Flag Republic.
War With Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory. Rio Grande set as southern border of Texas. The United States paid Mexico over $18,000,000 in return. Manifest Destiny had been realized. Slave debate in the west will soon create more problems.
Impact of War Wilmot Proviso Slavery nor involuntary servitude would never exist in any territory the U.S. had gained from Mexico. House passes it, but the Senate refuses to debate it. Proposal Each new territory should be allowed to decide for themselves if they wanted slavery or not. Idea becomes known as popular sovereignty. Congress supports it because it removed the slavery issue from national politics.
Compromise 1848 – gold discovered in Sacramento, California. News spread to the East Coast creating the California Gold Rush. 1849 – 80,000 “Forty-Niners” head to California. California decided to apply for statehood as a free state. There are 15 free and 15 slave states. Fearing slave states would become a minority many southern politicians begin to talk of secession. Compromise of 1850 California would become a free state and rest of Mexican cessions would have no restrictions on slavery.
Slavery Fugitive Slave Act A slaveholder or slave catcher had only to point out alleged runaways to have them taken into custody. Since they had no right to testify on their own behalf, even free African Americans had no way to prove their case. Testimony from white witnesses was all that was needed for the person to be sent south. Federal commissioners earned $10 to judge in favor of slaveholders; judgments for the accused paid only $5. Citizens could be deputized by federal marshals to help capture runaways.
Slavery Underground Railroad A well-organized network of abolitionist that helped slaves flee north. “Conductors” People who transported slaves in secret and gave them food and shelter. Harriet Tubman – most famous conductor. (Video) Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Territorial Problems Problems Transcontinental railroad is needed for the territories. Senator Stephen A. Douglas wants the railroad to start in Chicago. Organizes Nebraska Territory. Some senators block the bill wanting slavery to be allowed. Douglas agrees to divide the territory in two. Nebraska would be free; Kansas would by slave. Known as the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
“Bleeding Kansas” More Problems: Hundreds of northerners go to Kansas to create a anti-slavery majority. Thousands of Missourians cross the border to vote illegally and create a pro-slave government. Anti-slavery group drafts their own constitution anyway. March 1956 – two governments in Kansas.
“Bleeding Kansas” “Bleeding Kansas” More northerners move to Kansas. “Border Ruffians” begin to attack. Territorial civil war starts. The delicate balance created by the Missouri Compromise becomes obsolete. Kansas eventually becomes a free state.
Republicans 1854 – Free-Soilers and anti-slavery democrats form the Republican Party. Goal: Stop southern planters from controlling the party. Slavery should not be abolished, but kept out of the territories. This is the modern day Republican Party.
Dred Scott Dred Scott Missouri slave that had been taken to work in the north. When he returned he sued for his freedom – living in free territory made him free. Supreme Court Ruled against him. African Americans were not citizens and could not sue in the courts.
John Brown John Brown Abolitionist who opposed slavery with violence. 1859 Brown decides to seize the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He wanted to free and arm the enslaved people of the area and begin a rebellion. October 15 He and 18 men seize the arsenal. U.S. military commanded by Robert E. Lee force him to surrender. He is tried, sentenced to death, and executed.
John Brown John Brown seen as a martyr for the anti-slavery cause. South begins to see the north as an enemy.
Section 1: The Civil War Begins
Election of 1860 April 1860 Democrats gather in South Carolina to choose nominee for president. Southern Democrats Uphold the Dred Scott decision and defend slaveholders rights in territories. Northern Democrats Support popular sovereignty and against federal slave code in territories. 50 Southern delegates storm out. No one could get enough votes to be the nominee. Later – Northern democrats will nominate Stephen Douglas and Southern Democrats nominate John C. Breckenridge.
Election of 1860 Whigs Worried of Southern secession – create a new party called the Constitutional Union Party and run John Bell. Their purpose was to uphold the Constitution.
Election of 1860 Republicansstand no chance in the South. Need candidate who can sweep the North. Nominate Abraham Lincoln – popularity from his debates with Stephen Douglas. Lincoln Slavery is morally wrong and should not spread to territories. Republicans Affirm slavery will remain in Southern states. Democrats are divided and Lincoln wins the electoral vote and becomes president.
Secession South – Lincoln’s election is seen as a threat to their society and culture. First to secede – South Carolina. Compromise? John J. Crittenden – Crittenden’s Compromise Guarantee slavery where it already existed. Reinstate Missouri Compromise line and extend it to California. Slavery prohibited north and permitted south of the line. Lincoln requests that Republicans vote against it.
The Confederacy February 8, 1861 Confederate States of America is declared. Confederate Constitution Acknowledged the independence of each state. Guaranteed slavery. Limited the president to a single six year term. Jefferson Davis chosen to be president.
Ft. Sumter Lincoln Announced his plan to resupply Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Davis Could not tolerate U.S. troops in South’s most vital harbor. Demands the surrender of the fort before the supply ship arrives. Fort Commander Robert Anderson refused to surrender. Confederate forces bombard Ft. Sumter for 33 hours. No one is killed, but the Civil War had begun.
Border States Lincoln Cannot afford to lose slaveholding border states Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. Virginia’s secession Put a Confederate state across the river from D.C. If Maryland seceded, D.C. would be surrounded by Confederate territory. Lincoln imposes martial law – military rule Prevents Maryland from leaving the Union.
Robert E. Lee General Robert E. Lee of Virginia One of the best senior officers in the U.S. Army. Offered the command of Union troops. He had spoken out against secession and thought slavery was wrong. He also refused to fight against the South. He resigned his post to join the Confederacy. Hundreds of other officers join the Confederacy as well. An advantage for the South.
Northern Advantages The North had many advantages. Population: North – 22 million; South – 9 million. 1860 – Almost 90% of the nation’s factories in the North. Rail North has twice as many miles of railroad tracks. South has only one line connecting the western states to the east. Very easy for North to disrupt the South’s rail system.
Northern Advantages Financing – North Union also controls the national treasury. Northern banks hold large reserves; loan money to the government. Congress passes the Legal Tender Act, creating a national currency. Also allows the government to issue paper money called greenbacks.
Northern Advantages Financing – South Most Southern planters are poor. Banks were small and had few reserves. Best hope was to tax trade but Union Navy began to blockade ports. Resorted to direct taxation of the people. Many refuse to pay. South is forced to print paper money to pay its bills. Causes rapid inflation and it becomes almost worthless.
Politics North disagrees over conscription Conscription – forcing people into military service through a draft. Congress passes a conscription law but many democrats oppose it. Problems for Jefferson Davis Confederate Constitution protects states’ rights and limited central government’s power. Interferes with Davis’s ability to conduct the war.
Politics Europe European governments in a difficult situation. Union does not want European interference. Confederacy wants recognition and military aid. European textile factories depend on Southern cotton. Southern planters agree to stop selling cotton to French and British until they recognized the Confederacy. French and British will stay out of the war.
Modern Warfare First modern war Technology New, more accurate bullets. Instead of standing in a straight line troops begin to use trenches and barricades for protection. War of Attrition Attrition – The wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers and resources.
Southern Strategy Strategy Southern generals would pick their battles carefully. A defensive war of attrition would eventually force the Union to tire of war and negotiate. Great pressure for South to go on offensive.
Northern Strategy Anaconda Plan Union blockade of Confederate ports. Send gunboats down the Mississippi to split the Confederacy in two. The South would run out of resources and surrender. Critics The strategy is too slow. Only a long war focused on destroying the South’s armies had any chance of success.
Section 2: Fighting the Civil War
First Major Battle Union assault on Confederate troops at Manassas Junction, Virginia Only 25 miles south of D.C. Civilians dressed in their Sunday best and came to see the battle. Thought the Union would win and the war would be over. Battle of Bull Run Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson helped the Confederates defeat the North. The Union Army retreated, right through the people that came to watch. Lincoln calls for an army of 500,000 men.
Naval War Lincoln proclaims a blockade of all Confederate ports to stop their trade with the world. Difficult to stop blockade runners – small, fast vessels used to get past the blockade. The South was able to ship some cotton to Europe in return for supplies. April 1862 – The Union captured New Orleans, center of the cotton trade.
The West Ulysses S. Grant – Union General Campaign to seize the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. Provided the Union with a river route into Confederate territory. Battle of Shiloh Union goal: seize Corinth, Mississippi to cut the South’s rail line between Mississippi and Tennessee. Confederates launched a surprise attack near Shiloh church. Union won the battle. Twenty thousand troops were killed or wounded.
The East Union General George B. McClellan Plan to capture Confederate capital of Richmond, VA. Confederate Robert E. Lee Begins a series of attacks – Seven Days’ Battle. Union forced to retreat. Confederate forces march towards D.C. Leads to the Second Battle of Bull Run. Confederates win again – only 20 miles outside D.C. Lee invades Maryland.
The East Lee invades Maryland Invasion would convince North to accept Southern independence. A victory on Northern soil would win recognition from the British. September 17, 1862 Lee’s forces met Union troops under McClellan at Antietam Creek.
The East Battle of Antietam – Bloodiest one-day battle in American history. Over 6,000 killed and another 16,000 wounded. Suffering too many casualties Lee retreats back to Virginia. Crucial victory for the Union. British were ready to intervene as a mediator had Lee succeeded. Were also ready to recognize the Confederacy. Lincoln now convinced to end slavery in the South.
Emancipation Most begin to support ending slavery To punish the south. To make soldiers’ sacrifices worth it. Emancipation Proclamation A decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863. Did not address slavery in the border states. Lincoln did not want to endanger their loyalty to the Union. War transforms from one of preserving the Union to a war of liberation.
Life During War South economy suffers Winter 1862 sees food shortages. Food shortages led to riots. Many Confederate soldiers deserted to return home to help their families. North has an economic boom Banking industry raises money for war. Growing industries supply Union troops with clothes and munitions.
Life During War Daily Life Soldiers faced constant threat of disease. Extreme medical procedures if injured in battle. Agricultural innovations Helped minimize loss of labor as men left to fight. Women filled labor shortages in industry.
Life During War African Americans Emancipation enabled African Americans to enlist in the Union army. Thousands rush to join the military. Women Managed family farm and businesses. Served as nurses to the wounded. Clara Barton – Civil War nurse – founder of the American Red Cross.
The West Vicksburg Control of the Mississippi was vital for the Union. Vicksburg was the last Confederate stronghold on the river. North could cut the South in two. General Grant puts the city under siege in May. July 4, 1863 – Confederate Commander at Vicksburg surrendered.
The East Confederate success Lee defeats Union forces at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. June 1863 Lee decides to launch another invasion of the North. Confederate army forages in Pennsylvania Some troops headed into the town of Gettysburg to seize a supply of shoes. They encounter two brigades of Union cavalry.
The East Battle of Gettysburg Union General George Meade vs. Confederate General Robert E. Lee Day 1 – July 1, 1863 Day 2 – July 2 Little Round Top – 20th Maine led by Colonel Joshua Chamberlain Day 3 – July 3 Lee ordered 15,000 men under the command of Generals George Pickett and A.P. Hill to make a massive assault. Pickett’s Charge – 7,000 casualties in less than a half hour. Fails to break the Union line.
The East Gettysburg casualties North – 23,000 South – 28,000 (more than a third of Lee’s entire force) Turning point of the war in the East. Ensures once again that the British would not support the South. Confederates on the defensive for the rest of the war. Gettysburg Address Given on November 19, 1863.
The West Tennessee Fighting erupts near a vital railroad junction in Chattanooga. Union victory would give them control of a railroad running to Atlanta. Union Victory clears the way for an invasion of Georgia. Lincoln appoints Grant to general in chief of the Union forces. Promotes him to lieutenant general – first since George Washington.
The East Grant’s strategy Grant determined to attack Lee’s forces relentlessly. Gives Lee’s troops no time to recover. Union attacks: Wilderness Spotsylvania Courthouse Cold Harbor Grant’s biggest mistake Bloodiest eight minutes of the war. North – 1,844 killed; South – 83 killed. Siege of Petersburg
March to the Sea William Tecumseh Sherman Put in charge of Union operations in the West. Captures Atlanta and sets it on fire. More than one-third of the city destroyed. Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman leads his troops east across Georgia. Purpose: make Southern civilians understand the horrors of war and pressure them to give up. Sherman’s troops cut a path of destruction up to sixty miles wide.
Surrender Capture of Atlanta revitalizes Northern support for the war. Lincoln is elected to a second term. Lincoln interprets his win as a mandate to end slavery permanently by amending the Constitution. January 31, 1865 The 13thAmendment banning slavery in the United States passes the House of Representatives.
Surrender April 9, 1865 – Appomattox Courthouse Lee’s troops are ragged and battered, surrounded and outnumbered. Lee surrenders to Grant. Terms of surrender U.S. would not prosecute Confederate troops for treason. Confederate troops could keep their horses.
Assassination April 14, 1865 Lincoln goes to Ford’s Theatre with his wife. John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln in the back of the head. Lincoln died the next morning.
Impact of War North’s victory saved the Union and strengthened the power of the federal government over the states. Transformed American society by ending slavery. The South is left socially and economically devasted. Casualties: North – 140,414 battle deaths; 365,000 total dead. South – 72,524 battle deaths; 260,000 total dead. Total deaths – 625,000. Time to rebuild.
Section 3: Reconstruction
Reconstruction Reconstruction Rebuilding the nation after the war. Lincoln – Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. Reconcile with the South; not punish for treason. Amnesty – pardon – offered to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the U.S. When 10% of state’s voters in 1860 election took the oath they could organize a new state government. Confederate government officials and military officers could not take the oath or be pardoned.
Reconstruction Resistance – Radical Republicans Prevent the leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power. All African Americans would count towards population. Wanted to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote.
Reconstruction Moderate Republicans Lincoln too lenient. Radical Republicans going too far with African Americans equality and voting rights.
Reconstruction Compromise – Wade-Davis Bill Required the majority of adult white males in a former Confederate state to take an oath of allegiance. The state could then create a new government. “Iron-clad” oath – oath saying that they never fought against the Union or supported the South. Each state would have to abolish slavery. Deny all former Confederate officials and military officers from voting or holding office. Passed Congress, but Lincoln vetoed it.
Reconstruction March 1865 Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands Freedmen’s Bureau. Fed and clothed war refugees in the South. Helped former slaves find work on plantations.
Reconstruction Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president. (Video) Democrat from Tennessee. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan Pardon all former Confederate citizens who took an oath of loyalty to the Union. Required Southern states to ratify the 13th Amendment.
Reconstruction Problems: Southern voters elect many Confederate leaders to Congress. Republicans voted to reject the new Southern members of Congress. Southern legislatures pass black codes. Required African Americans to enter into annual labor contracts. Those who did not could be arrested for vagrancy. Forced into involuntary servitude.
Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction Civil Rights Act of 1866 Intended to override the black codes. Granted citizenship to all persons born in the U.S. except Native Americans. Guaranteed African Americans rights to own property and to be treated equally in court. Johnson vetoed it; Congress overrode it and it became law.
Reconstruction 14th Amendment Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. No state could deny any person “equal protection of the laws.” Ratified in 1868.
Reconstruction Johnson vs. Republicans Republicans win a 3 to 1 majority in Congress. They could override any presidential veto.
Reconstruction 1867 – Military Reconstruction Act Divided the former Confederacy into five military districts. A Union general was placed in charge of each district to maintain peace. Each former Confederate state had to design a constitution acceptable to Congress. The new constitutions had to give the right to vote to all adult male citizens regardless of race. Each state had to ratify the 14th Amendment.
Impeachment Republicans try to restrict Johnson. Pass the Tenure of Office Act which required the Senate to approve the removal of any official whose appointment had required the Senate’s consent. Johnson challenges the act by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. House votes to impeach Johnson. Charged with “high crimes and misdemeanors.”
Impeachment Senate put the president on trial. Voted 35 – 19 guilty; one short of two-thirds needed for conviction. Johnson does not run in next election. Ulysses S. Grant wins the presidency. (Video11:39)
Reconstruction Fifteenth Amendment The right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Reconstruction During Reconstruction a large number of Northerners travelled to the South. Many were elected to positions in state government. Called carpetbaggers – some arrived with belongings in suitcases made of carpet fabric. Some Southerners worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction – known as scalawags.
African Americans African American men enter politics. Served as delegates to constitutional conventions. Dozens served in state legislatures; 14 elected to the House; two to the Senate. Freedmen’s Bureau establishes schools for African Americans. 1876 – 40% of African American children attend school. Begin building churches.
Reforms and Resistance Republican governments in the South institute reforms. Repealed the black codes. Improved infrastructure – rebuilt roads, railways, and bridges. Resistance Secret societies organized to undermine Republican rule. The largest – Ku Klux Klan.
End of Reconstruction Grant’s second term marred by scandals. Country also falls into a depression. Republicans begin to lose power. Enforcing Reconstruction becomes more difficult. Democrats begin to retake control of the South.
End of Reconstruction Election of 1876 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Democrat Samuel Tilden. Election day: twenty electoral votes disputed (19 from three southern states). Compromise of 1877 Republicans promised to pull federal troops out of the South if Hayes were elected.
End of Reconstruction A New South South cold never return to the pre-war agricultural economy. Had to develop a strong industrial economy.
African Americans Collapse of Reconstruction ends their hopes of being granted land. Many return to plantations owned by whites. Many became tenant farmers – paying rent for the land they farmed. Most tenant farmers became sharecroppers – paid a share of their crops to cover rent and seed and equipment. Many struggled to grow enough to cover the increasing cost of supplies. The Civil War had ended slavery; Reconstruction had trapped many in poverty.