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Unit One

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Unit One

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  1. Unit One What is Psychology? Ch. 1

  2. Psychology • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Behavior- any action that other people can observe and/or measure • Cognition- mental processes that are unseen • Memory, dreams, perception, thoughts

  3. Psychology • Goals • Observe/Describe- • taking measurements and recording • Explain- • determine the how and whys of behavior • Predict- • make judgments on future behavior by using data of past events • Control/change- • use behaviors of individuals to help accomplish goals

  4. Psychology • IS a SOCIAL SCIENCE • Deal with structure of human society and the nature and interactions of the individuals that make up society…(and animals) • Psychology specifically focuses on behaviors and mental processes of individuals in a society. • We use basic science (research for knowledge sake) and applied science (use of basic science)

  5. Part 2 What do Psychologists DO?

  6. Psychologists • Three types of Psychologists • Psychiatrists • Observe, identify and treat psych issues with medicine and therapy • Clinical Psychologists • Observe, identify and overcome psychological issues • Counseling Psychologists • Identify and help clarify everyday issues

  7. Types of Psychologists • School- identify issues that interfere with learning • Educational- concerned with theoretical issues in learning • Developmental- study changes throughout the life span • Personality- identify characteristics of people • Social- focus on individuals in groups • Experimental- conduct research into basic human processes • I/O- focus on increasing productivity in the workplace • Environmental- focus on relationship b/w individuals and their environments • Consumer- focus on how people shop • Forensic- focus on criminal behavior • Health- focus on how mental states affect physical health

  8. Part 3 A History of Psychology

  9. Roots of Psychology • Philosophy of Ancient Greeks were the building blocks of modern Psychology • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Hippocrates • Birth of Modern Science • People began to theorize about life on earth using empirical research. • Birth of Psychology as a science • Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Leipzig, Germany • Established the first psych experiment • Experimented with human sensation and awareness • And so, Psychology birthed many schools of thought to explain behavior

  10. Psychological Perspectives • Structualism(Wundt and Tichner) • Focused on basic elements of consciousness • Functionalism (James) • Consciousness is a continuous stream and served the purpose of adaptability • Gestalt (Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler) • Learning is active and purposeful, perceptions are more than the sums of their parts

  11. Perspectives • Behaviorism/Learning (Pavlov, Skinner, Watson) • We learn behavior via observable responses • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic (Freud, Jung) • Motivated by unconscious conflicts • Cognitive (Piaget, Vygotsky) • How we think shapes what we do • Humanistic (Maslow, Rogers) • Motivated by need to belong and personal growth • Socio-Cultural • Our environment shapes who we are • Biological • Our mind and body determine behaviors

  12. Unit One Psychological Methods Ch.2

  13. Conducting Research • Quick Review for YOU! • What are the goals of Psychology? • Observe, Explain, Predict and Change • We use __________science when conducting research • We use ___________science when we use the research already conducted.

  14. Conducting Research • The scientific method…yup, you know this. • Question • What are you interested in finding out? • Hypothesis • What do you think you will find out? • Research • Which method of research is best? • What are the operational definitions? • Analyzing • Organizing all the data • Conclusions • What does all your data say? • Replicate

  15. Research Methods • Descriptive Research • Case Study • Longitudinal • Cross-Sectional • Observations • Naturalistic/Laboratory • Surveys • Population • Sample

  16. Research Example: Survey • Q- Are Hough Students Happy? • H- yes, due to their personal and educational environments. • R- Survey • Operational Definitions- • Population- Hough High Students • Sample- 200 students • Randomization- ask 9,10,11 and 12th grade English teachers to pass out surveys in class

  17. Interpreting Descriptive Research • Correlation • Measure of relatedness • Predicts Behavior • Correlation Coefficient • Determines strength and direction of relationship • A Number ranging from -1 to +1 • 1 indicating a strong relationship • 0 indicating no relationship • Positive- Variables move together • Negative- Variables move opposite

  18. Research Methods • Experiment • Proves Cause and Effect • Components of an Experiment • Independent Variable • Dependent Variable • Placebo • Groups • Experimental Group • Control Group • Decreasing Bias • Random Assignment • Single-Blind Study • Double-Blind Study

  19. Research Methods • Analyzing Results • Organization • Frequency Distribution Charts • Measures of Central Tendency • Mean, Median and Mode • Interpretation • Graphs • Measures of Variability • Range and Standard Deviation

  20. Practice • Is there a relationship between the number of hours a person spends studying and his/her test grade?

  21. Practice • With the following information, please answer the following: • Create a Frequency Distribution Chart to organize data • Create a scatter plot to determine the correlation between hours studying and test grade. • Label each axis accordingly. • What type of correlation is shown? _________________ • Would you say it was a strong correlation? • Determine the mean, median and mode of the test scores. Which is the best measure of central tendency and why? • Determine the mean, median and mode of the hours spent studying. Which is the best measure of central tendency and why? • What is the range of scores on the test?

  22. Practice