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Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement. Civil Rights. The rights that belong to “all persons” in the Constitution and Bill of Rights Freedoms of speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion Due Process Rights Fair Trial * VOTING Rights are for citizens only!.

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Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement

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    1. Unit 11: The Civil Rights Movement

    2. Civil Rights • The rights that belong to “all persons” in the Constitution and Bill of Rights • Freedoms of speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion • Due Process Rights • Fair Trial * VOTING Rights are for citizens only!

    3. Civil War and Reconstruction • At the end of the Civil War, the US moved towards equality by: • 13 Amendment: Ending Slavery • 14th Amendment: defining citizenship • 15th Amendment: outlawing racial discrimination in voting

    4. Civil War & Reconstruction • The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were made ineffective by Supreme Court Decisions and Jim Crow Laws • Discrimination by race was rampant and legal based on State laws (Jim Crow Laws)

    5. Truman Years 1945-1953 • 1947: Jackie Robinson become first African-American baseball player to “cross the color line” and play in the major leagues • 1947: To Secure These Rights was published by Truman’s Administration; called for civil rights legislation to be passed by Congress • 1948: Truman had 1st integrated Inauguration • 1948: desegregated Armed Services • 1949: ended discriminatory hiring in the Federal government

    6. Election of 1948 • 3 way race • Truman : Democrat • Dewey: Republican • Thurman: Dixiecrat • Most people thought Dewey would win • Issue of race/segregation split the Democratic Party

    7. Jackie Robinson

    8. Civil Rights and Litigation • Litigation: to resolve a dispute in a court of law

    9. Civil Rights and Litigation • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Case involved the Separate Car Act in New Orleans railroads • Homer Plessy, a prominent Creole businessman, took a seat in a white only railcar • Plessy argued the separate rail cars for blacks and whites was a violation of the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause • Decision was 7-1 in favor of Separate Car Act • Separate But Equal became the standard for public facilities in the US • Segregation by race/color was constitutional

    10. NAACP • National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People • Decided to fight separate but equal in court starting in the 1930’s • Challenged the EQUAL facilities

    11. Sweatt v. Painter, 1950 • NAACP challenged University of Texas over its refusal to admit Herman Sweatt into their Law School due to his race • UT argued that its constitution prohibited integrated education • Texas created a separate law school for blacks in order to keep Sweatt out of UT • US Supreme Court ruled that the separate school failed to meet the “equal” standard • UT was required to admit all qualified students to its law school without consideration of race or ethnicity

    12. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1953) • NAACP lawyers challenged Kansas public school segregation law • Linda Brown and other African-American students were denied entry into an all-white public school near their homes • Could only attend an inferior “colored” school further from their homes • NAACP claims this violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

    13. Brown v. Board of Education • NAACP argues that separate educational facilities offered to African Americans were inherentlyinferior • Sent the message that these students were inferior • Key turning point in the Civil Rights Movement

    14. Thurgood Marshall • NAACP attorney that argues the case in front of the Supreme Court • Will later become the first African-American Justice on the Supreme Court (LBJ appoints)

    15. Chief Justice Earl Warren and School Segregation • Chief Justice Warren writes in the Courts opinion that ALL public schools must be desegregated “with all deliberate speed”. • Enforcement was left to lower federal courts • The vague language of the decision allowed some States to delay implementation

    16. “Jim Crow Laws” • State laws that prevented African-Americans from sharing public facilities with Whites • Examples of Segregated Areas: • Beaches • Theaters • Restaurants • Water Fountains • Restrooms • Waiting Rooms at Bus and Train Stations • Seating on Buses • Etc…

    17. The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56 • December 1955: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man in Montgomery, AL • She was arrested & prosecuted • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lead a boycott of the city buses • Boycott lasts 13 months • King organized car pools and private taxi services • King was arrested and his home was bombed

    18. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Case went to federal court • Court ruled segregation on the buses violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment • Buses were desegregated • Proved that litigation and boycotts could overturn Jim Crow Laws

    19. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. • 1929-1965 • Baptist preacher • Urged African-Americans to protest unfair treatment and laws • Lead training for non-violent protest • Followed Gandhi’s practice of non-violent marches, sit-ins, and boycotts • Became the voice/face of the Civil Rights Movement

    20. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 • Signed by IKE • Create the Civil Right commission • Gave federal courts power to register African-Americans to vote • Procedures turned out to be too complicated • Few people were registered • Helped start the process of getting voting rights for minorities

    21. Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957 • Arkansas delayed desegregating schools • Gov. OrvalFaubus publically proclaimed he would continue with segregation as long as possible • Ordered the Arkansas National guard to prevent 9 African-American students from entering Little Rock High School • He refused to protect the students from an angry mob

    22. Little Rock Nine • Nine African-American students who tried to desegregate Little Rock High School