The Civil Rights Movement 1954-1965
Big Events from the 1950s • Brown v Board of Education—1954 • Rosa Parks refuses to go to the back of the bus—1955 • The Governor of Arkansas uses the National Guard to prevent nine students from attending Little Rock High School; President Eisenhower sends in federal troops to ensure compliance—1957
Activity Picks up in the 1960s • Lunch counter sit-ins take place in Greensboro, NC—1960 • Freedom Rides begin—1961 • President Kennedy sends federal troops to force the University of Mississippi to admit James Meredith; transportation facilities and the Department of Defense are desegregated —1962
Freedom Rides Rides through the South with both whites and blacks. The intent was to make sure public transportation was really desegregated. They were met with violence, opposition, and even jail time.
Dangers of 1963 • Medgar Evers is assassinated • Race riots in Maryland • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his I Have a Dreamspeech • Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, leaves four young black girls dead
Birmingham Victims September 15, 1963 Denise was 11, the other girls were 14. Despite leads and information, there were no arrests following the bombing.
Changes in 1964 • Civil Rights Act declares discrimination, based on race, illegal; followed a 75-day filibuster • Race riots in Harlem and Philadelphia • Three civil rights workers disappear in Mississippi, after being stopped for speeding, and are found buried six weeks later • President Johnson's Response
1965 Brings More Violence • Malcolm X is assassinated • March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, brings trouble and abuse • Riots in Los Angeles • New voting rights act signed
Blacks are Elected • 1966: first black U.S. Senator in 85 years—Edward Brooke, Massachusetts • 1967: first black appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court—Thurgood Marshall • 1967: black mayors elected in major cities—Carl Stokes in Cleveland and Richard Hacher in Gary, Indiana
Dr. King in 1968 • Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, by James Earl Ray • Poor People’s March takes place in Washington, D.C.