Prejudice • An adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts. • A preconceived preference or idea. • The act or state of holding unreasonable preconceived judgments or convictions • Irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race, or religion.
Discrimination • Treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality or prejudice: racial discrimination; discrimination against foreigners.
De Jure Segregation • Rigid patterns of separation by law. Found in the south
De Facto Segregation • Separation that resulted from the ghetto conditions in the north
Civil Disobedience • Refusal to obey civil laws in an effort to induce change in governmental policy or legislation, characterized by the use of passive resistance or other nonviolent means.
Affirmative Action • A policy or a program that seeks to redress past discrimination through active measures to ensure equal opportunity, as in education and employment.
Important Events • The Declaration of Independence 1776 • Dred Scott vs Sanford 1857 • The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 • 13th Amendment 1867 • 14th Amendment 1868 • 15th Amendment 1867 • Plessy vs Ferguson 1896
Dred Scott • The case before the court was that of Dred Scott v. Sanford. Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom. • In March of 1857, the United States Supreme Court, declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States
Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 • On June 7, 1892, a 30-year-old colored shoemaker named Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy was only one-eighths black and seven-eighths white, but under Louisiana law, he was considered black and therefore required to sit in the "Colored" car. • Supreme Court ruling "separate but equal”
Important Events • 1909 NAACP is formed • 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education • 1955 Murder of Emmitt Till • 1955-1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott • 1957 – 1958 Little Rock Nine • 1960s sit-ins and freedom riders • 1963 Civil Rights Protest in Birmingham • 1963 March on Washington • 1964 Civil Rights Act • 1965 Civil Rights Protest in Selma • 1965 Voting Rights Act is passed • 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Important Groups • NAACP • Urban League • CORE • SCLC • SNCC
NAACP • The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was created to promote equality and remove voting obstacles for all Americans and secure full equality • In the 1930s they focused on passing anti-lynching laws • During the 1950s and 1960s they fought for equality in the Civil Rights Movement
Urban League • It was founded in 1911 and it was there to help assist African Americans who came from the south and moved to northern cities
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) • It wanted to bring change through peaceful confrontation • CORE’s leader was James Farmer • It gained support in the 1950s and developed into a national organization
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • Founded by Martin Luther King Jr. and other clergy after their success in the Montgomery bus boycott • Used non-violent tactics and made the south their primary focus
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • SNCC was originally part of SCLC • It gave young African Americans a chance to make decisions about priorities and tactics and shifted away from clergy leaders • Robert Moses was one of SNCC’s most influential leaders.
Brown vs Board of Education 1954 • U.S. Supreme Court ended federally sanctioned racial segregation in the public schools by ruling unanimously that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
Thurgood Marshall • Lawyer for the Browns in Brown vs. Board of Education • He later became a Supreme Court justice
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956 • Rosa Parks • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Lasted 12 months
Little Rock Nine • Nine African American Students who integrated Little Rock Ark. Schools • National Guard was called in for protection
Sit-in’s of the 1960’s • The sit-in technique meant that African American CORE members often with white members, simply sat down in a segregated establishment and refused to leave until they were served • Often brought an end to segregation in facilities they targeted • Example: Woolworth Sit-in 1960
Boynton v. Virginia • The SC expanded on an earlier ruling that prohibited segregation on buses • As a result waiting rooms and dinning facilities that served interstate travelers had to be desegregated
Anniston, Alabama • A bus with freedom writers was met by a mob of white men. • They did not want to test the facilities and decided to turn around. • The mob slashed their tires and followed the bus. • Eventually, they caught up to the bus and fire bombed it.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • 1929-1968 • Morehouse College and PhD. From B.U • Led Montgomery bus boycott • President Southern Christian Leadership Conference • Noble Peace Prize 1964
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Civil Disobedience • Henry David Thoreau • Ghandi • Non-Violent • White America supported
Civil Rights Protest in Birmingham • In 1962 civil rights leaders felt that Birmingham would be a great place for another non-violent campaign • MLK Jr. arrived in April 1963 • City officials declared that the protest marches violated a regulation and arrested King • King responded with a “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
Civil Rights Protest in Birmingham • King was bailed out and held the parade • Included in the parade were men, women and children • As the marched the police chief arrested more then 900 children • They police used high power hoses, dogs, and clubs on the crowd • Everything was captured on TV and it horrified the nation
Civil Rights Act by JFK • JFK was elected to office in a slim victory over Richard Nixon. The African American vote helped him gain office • He was slow at first to make any big civil rights changes. • After seeing the civil rights activist struggle he made an appeal to the American public and called the quest for equality a “moral issue” • He then proposed a civil rights bill
Civil Rights Bill by JFK • JFK’s Bill wanted to prohibit discrimination in public places, ban discrimination wherever federal funding was involved and advance the effort to desegregate the schools • Congress was still dominated by white southerners, so nothing happened • MLK Jr. decided to plan a march that would grab the attention of people
March on Washington • In August of 1963, more then 200,000 people came from all over the country to call for jobs and freedom • MLK Jr. made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech at the march
I Have A Dream • Washington D.C at the Lincoln Memorial • August 28 1963 • Help push for the 1964 Civil Rights Act • Won Noble Peace Prize in 1964 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbUtL_0vAJk
Civil Rights Act of 1964 • JFK died 3 months after the March on Washington • Lyndon B. Johnson called on Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act in honor of John Kennedy • The House of Representatives did pass it, but it took some maneuvering by Johnson to get the Senate to pass it.
Civil Rights Protest in Selma • On "Bloody Sunday," March 7, 1965, some 600 civil rights marchers headed east out of Selma on U.S. Route 80. They got only as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge six blocks away, where state and local lawmen attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and drove them back into Selma. • Two days later on March 9, Martin Luther King, Jr., led a "symbolic" march to the bridge. Then civil rights leaders sought court protection for a third, full-scale march from Selma to the state capitol in Montgomery.
Civil Rights Protest in Selma • Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr., weighed the right of mobility against the right to march and ruled in favor of the demonstrators. "The law is clear that the right to petition one's government for the redress of grievances may be exercised in large groups...," said Judge Johnson, "and these rights may be exercised by marching, even along public highways."
Civil Rights Protest in Selma • On Sunday, March 21, about 3,200 marchers set out for Montgomery, walking 12 miles a day and sleeping in fields. By the time they reached the capitol on Thursday, March 25, they were 25,000-strong. Less than five months after the last of the three marches, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Authorized the AG to appoint federal examiners to go to places where local official did not allow African Americans to vote • It singled out the South for six states and part of another that did not pass the test of having 50% of the voting aged population registered • This act changed the nature of southern politics. It created a new voting population.
MALCOLM LITTLE, Malcolm X, EL-HAJJ MALIK EL-SHABAZZ • May 19, 1925, Omaha, Neb., U.S.--d. Feb. 21, 1965, New York, N.Y • Timeline http://www.malcolm-x.org/bio/timeline.htm • http://www.brothermalcolm.net/