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The Civil Rights Movement . Challenging Segregation . The Sit-In Movement . In the fall of 1959, four African American college students at a Woolworth’s department store in Greensboro, NC sat at a “white’s only” counter and refused to leave until they were served.

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the civil rights movement

The Civil Rights Movement

Challenging Segregation

the sit in movement
The Sit-In Movement
  • In the fall of 1959, four African American college students at a Woolworth’s department store in Greensboro, NC sat at a “white’s only” counter and refused to leave until they were served.
  • News of the sit-in at the Woolworth’s store spread quickly across Greensboro.
  • The following day, 29 African American students arrived at Woolworth’s to sit at the counter until they were served.
  • A new massive movement for civil rights had begun.
  • Sit-in movements brought large numbers of

idealistic and energized college students

into the civil rights struggle.

slide3
SNCC
  • As the sit-ins spread, student leaders in different states realized that they needed to coordinate their efforts.
    • Ella Baker, brought them together.
    • The students established the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). They then chose Marion Barry, a student leader from Nashville who later served as mayor of Washington D.C., to be SNCC’s first chairperson.
  • SNCC played a key role in desegregating public facilities in dozens of Southern communities.
    • Voter Education Project began with Robert Moses.
    • He urged SNCC to fill in the gap by helping rural

African Americans.

    • African Americans who tried to register to vote,
    • frequently met with violence.
the freedom riders
The Freedom Riders
  • Bus travel remained segregated in the South.
  • Teams of African Americans and whites traveled into the South from t he North to draw attention to the South's refusal to integrate bus terminals, the teams became known as the freedom riders.
    • In May, 1961 the first freedom riders boarded several South bound interstate buses.
    • When they arrived in Alabama angry white mobs attacked them.
john f kennedy and civil rights
John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights
  • Kennedy knew that he needed the support of many Southern Senators to get other programs passed through congress, and that any attempt to push through new civil rights legislation would anger them.
  • Kennedy was able, however, to appoint many African Americans to high-level positions in the federal government.
john f kennedy and civil rights1
John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights

The Justice Department takes Action

  • Robert Kennedy tried to help African Americans register to vote , by having the civil rights division of the justice department file law suits throughout the South.
  • To stop the violence against the freedom riders (Khrushchev was visiting), President Kennedy made a deal with senator James Eastland, that if he stopped the violence, he would let him arrest the freedom riders.
john f kennedy and civil rights2
John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights

James Meredith

  • African American veteran, James Merideth,tried to apply for a transfer to the University of Mississippi.
    • The governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, blocked his path.
    • Frustrated, President Kennedy, dispatched 500 federal Marshalls to escort Meredith to the campus.
    • Meredith attended classes at the University Of Mississippi under federal guard, he graduated the following August.
john f kennedy and civil rights3
John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights

Violence In Birmingham

  • To shed light on the civil rights movement, Martin Luther King Jr, led a movement in the already hostile Birmingham Alabama.
    • Bull Connor responded with force, ordering the police to use clubs, police dogs, and high pressure hire hoses on the demonstrators,
      • millions of people across the nation watched the graphic violence on television.
    • Kennedy ordered his aids to prepare a new civil rights bill.
the civil rights of 1964
The Civil Rights of 1964
  • The violence in Birmingham gave president

Kennedy his opportunity he needed to announce

his civil rights bill.

The March in Washington

  • To help Kennedy push his civil rights bill through congress, Dr King delivered a powerful speech outlining his dream of freedom and equality for all Americans.

The Civil Rights Bill Becomes Law

  • Despite difficulty getting the civil rights bill through the Senate, president Johnson signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law.
    • It gave the federal government power to prevent racial discrimination in a number of areas.
the struggle for voting rights
The Struggle For Voting Rights
  • The civil Rights act of 1964, was passed but did little to address voting issues.

The Selma March

  • In Selma Alabama, African Americans made up a majority of Selma's population, but they comprised only 3% of registered voters.
  • Dr. King organized a march for freedom, from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery.
  • More than 200 state troopers and

deputized citizens rushed the demonstrators,

many were beaten in full view of television

cameras.

the struggle for voting rights1
The Struggle For Voting Rights

The Voting Rights Act of 1965

  • The passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 marked a turning point in he civil rights movement.
    • Segregation was outlawed and new federal laws were in place to prevent discrimination in voting rights.
  • After 1965, the movement shifted its focus to pay more attention to the problem of achieving full social and economic equality for African Americans.
essay question
Essay Question
  • Describe the ideas Dr. King expressed in his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.”
essay question and answer
Essay Question and Answer
  • Describe the ideas Dr. King expressed in his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.”
    • The “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” was an eloquent defense of nonviolent protest. In it, Dr. King explained that although the protesters were breaking the law they were following a higher moral law, based on divine justice. To the charge that the protests created racial tensions, King argued that the protests “merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive.” Injustice, he insisted , had to be exposed “to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured.”
essay question1
Essay Question
  • Describe the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
essay question and answer1
Essay Question and Answer
  • Describe the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the most comprehensive civil rights law ever enacted. It gave the federal government broad power to prevent racial discrimination in a number of areas. The law outlawed segregation in most places of public accommodation, and it gave citizens of all races and nationalities equal access to such facilities as restaurants, parks, libraries, and theaters. The law gave the attorney general more power to bring lawsuits to force school desegregation, and it required private employers to end discrimination in the workplace. It also established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as a permanent agency in the federal government, which would oversee the ban on job discrimination by race, religion, gender or national origin.