Civil Rights Background • Post WWI & WWII movement to urban areas • African Americans influencing party politics by the 1950s • Conflicting feelings about Cold War message of freedom and democracy.
Landmark in Desegregation Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) Federal troops uphold in Little Rock, Ark. Little Rock 9 Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) Rosa Parks, MLK, Jr. Civil Rights Acts of 1957 & 1960 First since Reconstruction SCLC Greensboro sit-in SNCC Civil Rights
Jackie Robinson • 1947- Broke “Color Barrier” in Major League Baseball by signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
1952 • 15 states require by law to keep public schools segregated. • Soon Brown v. Board of Education will overturn this ruling.
Brown vs. board Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas • May 1954, the Supreme Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and the "separate but equal" doctrine. • Segregationof children in public schools on the basis of race was unconstitutionaland discrimination. • States ordered to integratetheir schools.
Brown II 1955- all states must comply with Brown v. Board of Education ruling
Rosa parks Rosa Parks December 1955, Rosa Parks, a 42 year old black woman, was ordered by a Montgomery bus driver to give up her seat to white passengers. • Refused, arrested and fined $10 for sitting in the white section. • Blacks refused to ride buses until the law was changed. • Begins the Civil Rights Era as a national movement to bring about equality for Black Americans.
Rosa parks Montgomery Bus Boycott • Rosa Parks case led to the Montgomery Bus Boycottagainst segregation on public buses. • Led by Martin Luther King, Jr.- 1956 and lasted one year. • Montgomery City Government ended segregation. Martin Luther King, Jr *Leader for Black Civil Rights *End Jim Crow *Promote integration *Increase voting rights *Bring about a true democracy *Rights deprived since Civil War
LITTLE ROCK NINE little rock • Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas was the first high school in the South to integrate. • 1958, President Eisenhowersent Federal troops to accompany the nine black students attending an all white high school...
Civil Disobedience • Refusal to obey an unjust law.
Passive Resistance • Turn the other cheek. • Nonviolent protests such as sit ins, marches and freedom riders.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • Carried out nonviolent crusades against racism. • Used sit ins, marches, and protests.
Civil Rights Tactics • Marches • Sit ins • Demonstrations • Boycotts
Freedom Riders • Rode buses into segregated bus terminals throughout the South to protest racism and voter registration. • Many were met with bombings and fire. • U.S. Marshalls ordered to protect them. • Included cities such as Nashville, Huntsville, Chattanooga, and Jackson, MS.
Results of Freedom Rides Government bans segregation on all interstate facilities including lunch counters and restrooms.
James Meredith • 1st African American student at Ole Miss. 1962 • He had to be protected by federal troops that stayed on campus.
University of Alabama 1965 University of Alabama becomes desegregated despite the protest of Alabama’s racist Governor George Wallace and racist Police Commissioner Bull Connor.