The Civil Rights Movement An Introduction
What are civil rights? • Slavery was abolished following the Civil War. Why did discrimination against African Americans still persist? The Long Movement
Reconstruction Amendments • Read the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments • (pp.102-104, green) • Whose rights are expanded? How? • These do not resolve the issue of societal prejudice.
Jim Crow Laws • Examples… • Pool and Billiard Rooms: It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards. • Children Playing: It shall be unlawful for negro and white children to play together whether in public or private.
Plessy v. Ferguson • What was the issue in Plessy v. Ferguson? • LA law required rail companies to separate the races • Court’s justification… -separate but equal -the segregation of cars does not conflict with the 13th Amend. -14th Amendment cannot be seen to abolish differences between races. -Separate facilities for the races are appropriate and legal as long as they are equal.
Review the following Eras (green Americans) • Gilded Age: Pp. 309-311 • Progressive Era: Pp. 346-347 • World War I: Pp. 414-415 • 1920s: Pp. 470-471 • WWII: Pp. 598-599 • What evidence was there of discrimination? • Were there advances made toward equality? Explain. Life for African Americans
What happened in the 55 years after the Plessy decision? Dr. & Mrs Clark's Doll Tests….. Integration = Confrontation
Brown v. Board • What problems resulted in the case? • Explain “separate but equal”. • What events had occurred between 1896 and 1954 related to race relations? Decision: -separate is NOT equal -effects of segregation -feelings of inferiority -separation of races increases animosity and suspicion -separate education facilities perpetuates discrimination and perceptions of inferiority
Text Check-in From pp. 700-716 If “civil disobedience” is a sit-in and “direct action” includes sit-ins but could also be a black family moving into a white neighborhood…. How did the Montgomery Bus Boycotts work? 1963
Integration/Desegregation -Bussing -Changing schools -Whites move kids to private schools Obstacles -Local groups -Intimidation -Protests -News articles -the decision in Brown BEGINS the movement as large groups of people are provoked to action by disillusionment.
What Happened… • NAACP enrolled students • Little Rock Nine • Arkansas Nat’l Guard • Eisenhower • Tortured Year • Other Consequential Events • 6/ 1958: Birmingham Church Bombing • 8/1958: Oklahoma City Sit-in Testing Brown v. Board: 1957