basing tourism in aboriginal community defining success
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Basing Tourism in Aboriginal Community: Defining Success. TRMT 396 Lecture #3. Dan McDonald. Going beyond the economic…. Community-based tourism as growth ‘within’ context Control not just involvement Tourism as complimentary not substitutive

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going beyond the economic
Going beyond the economic…
  • Community-based tourism as growth ‘within’ context
  • Control not just involvement
  • Tourism as complimentary not substitutive
  • Internal rather than external drivers ( or dual)
  • Participatory stakeholders not just beneficiaries
  • Long-term communal enterprise requires long-term commitment by all

Notzke, 2006

Notzke, 2006

types of community based enterprises
Types of Community-based Enterprises
  • Totally owned and managed by community
  • Family or group initiatives in community
  • Joint venture with outside business partner
  • Is there an implied hierarchy based upon ‘control’?
  • Is do we assess solely on benefit?

Wood (2002) in Notzke

issues in sustaining success
Issues in Sustaining Success
  • Connecting to market an issue – rural/remote↓ access to tools of tourism communication
  • Unequal distribution of opportunity & benefits
  • Vulnerability to external shocks, shifting trends
  • Dependence on continued external funding with limited local capital source
bell s typology revised
Bell’s Typology Revised

Community Stewardship

Colton & Whitney-Squire (2010)

bell s typology in detail
Bell’s Typology in Detail


Environmental Stewardship & Culturally Informed Management

the focus on aboriginal community
The focus on aboriginal community
  • Moving forward can’t be based on dependency
  • History of colonization led to dislocation from community history and weakened its bond
  • Revitalizing community often a process of remembering and re-membering
  • Going forward depends on strengthening relationships within & without
a picture of a vibrant community self conscious traditionalism
A picture of a Vibrant Community(self-conscious traditionalism)
  • Wholeness with Diversity
  • Shared Culture based on known tradition
  • Open Communication
  • Respect & Trust
  • Group maintenance & pride
  • Participatory & Consensus based decision making
  • Youth empowered
  • Extensive positive social, political & economic relationships with other communities

Alfred (2009)

community based view of success factors
Community-based View of ‘Success’ Factors
  • Improved Livelihoods
  • Local Economic Development
  • Commercial Viability
  • Collective Benefits (social projects, infrastructure)
  • Social Capital & Empowerment (equity, decision making, local leadership, low impact)
  • Sense of Place (pride, revitalization, heritage)
  • Education
  • Conservation & Environment (sustainable use, monitoring, protection)
  • Tourism ( ↑experience, awareness)
  • Other (investment, sufficient time, replication)

Goodwin & Santilli (2009)

pro poor does the metric fit
Pro-Poor: Does the Metric Fit?
  • “Growth is pro=poor if it enables poor people to realize the value of their asset base, which includes their culture”
  • Assets/Capital include:
    • Financial
    • Human
    • Natural
    • Physical
    • Social

Goodwin, 2007

ways for tourism to reach aboriginal people who are poor
Ways for Tourism to Reach Aboriginal People who are Poor
  • Direct employment
  • Supplying goods & services
  • Direct sales to tourists
    • Often informal
  • Tourism micro-enterprises
  • Taxes/levies on tourism revenues
  • Voluntary giving by tourists and/or enterprises
    • $, goods, time, etc
  • Investment in infrastructure

Goodwin, 2007

the big picture
The Big Picture
  • “Sustaining economic development in Aboriginal communities requires a nation buildingapproach rather than a jobs and income approach” (Colton & Harris, 2007)
  • Links to the Harvard Project notion of the importance of sovereignty
  • Ultimate measure of success
cultural centre case studies
Cultural Centre Case Studies
  • Quw’utsun Cultural & Conference Centre
  • Nuyumbalees Cultural Centre
  • U’Mista Cultural Centre
  • Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre
  • Nk’Mip Cultural Centre
additional sources
Additional Sources
  • Alfred, T. (2009). Peace, Power and Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto. 2nd ed. Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press.