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Software Project Management Session 12: Project Success Today Finish: testing, migration, rollout (lect’s 10 & 11) Defining project success And failure Success tips Final exam review Session 11 Review We’ll cover this later in class: Exam review Concluding Software Projects

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software project management

Software Project Management

Session 12: Project Success

Q7503, Fall 2002

today
Today
  • Finish: testing, migration, rollout (lect’s 10 & 11)
  • Defining project success
    • And failure
  • Success tips
  • Final exam review

Q7503, Fall 2002

session 11 review
Session 11 Review
  • We’ll cover this later in class: Exam review

Q7503, Fall 2002

concluding software projects
Concluding Software Projects
  • Seems simple, often isn’t
  • Potential Issues
    • Last-minute change requests
      • “One more feature”
    • Disputes of fulfillment of all requirements
      • Often “interpretation” issues
    • Keeping the team motivated
    • Difficult transition to maintenance

Q7503, Fall 2002

maintenance phase
Maintenance Phase
  • The “No respect” phase
  • Less “glamorous”
    • Lack of enthusiasm
  • Pressure to make fixes quickly
    • For “production” problems
  • Software can become “hacked” “patchwork” over time
  • Finding a support & test platform can be difficult
    • Often the forgotten child until fixes are needed

Q7503, Fall 2002

maintenance phase6
Maintenance Phase
  • Compare to hardware maintenance
    • Not to keep state same; but changes to state
    • Fixes and enhancements
  • Configuration control is very important
    • Fixing the “right” version; tracking branches
  • Project management not always carried over
  • Smaller team
    • Often not a ‘dedicated team’
    • Drawn from developer with other main tasks

Q7503, Fall 2002

maintenance phase7
Maintenance Phase
  • Contracts, remember those?
    • Always consider the maintenance phase here
    • Often via a “labor hours” contract
      • Time & materials in a “direct” scenario
    • Otherwise via “maintenance contract”
      • Percentage of software license fee
      • Ex: 20% of original cost per year
  • Corp. budget if internal/IS projects
    • Often annual/monthly “maintenance” allocations

Q7503, Fall 2002

success metrics
Success Metrics
  • 1. On schedule
    • Requires good: plan; estimation; control
  • 2. Within budget
    • Again: planning, estimation & control
  • 3. According to requirements
    • Importance of good requirements
    • Perception & negotiation critical

Q7503, Fall 2002

you are not santa claus
You are not Santa Claus
  • Learn to say “No”
    • Be polite but firm
  • The Value of Versions
    • “We will put that in phase 2”
  • An Ounce of Prevention

Q7503, Fall 2002

think small
Think Small
  • Keep requirements tight & focused
  • One milestone at a time
  • Smaller, incremental chunks
  • As simple as possible but no simpler

Q7503, Fall 2002

process spectrum
Process Spectrum
  • Too much medicine can kill the patient

Balance is crucial

Q7503, Fall 2002

paralysis
Paralysis
  • Analysis Paralysis
      • Over-process
      • Nothing gets finished
      • 65% of software professionals have experienced this
  • Paralysis Paranoia
      • Fear of over-process = process avoidance

Q7503, Fall 2002

miscellaneous
Miscellaneous
  • MBWA
    • Management by Walk About
      • Shows your actually involved day-to-day
      • Recognizes individuals may say more 1-on-1
      • Allows spontaneity
      • Finds personnel problems sooner

Q7503, Fall 2002

delegate
Delegate
  • Don’t be a “Control Freak”
  • You need to be the “hub” but not everything

Q7503, Fall 2002

success rates
Success Rates
  • By Industry
    • Best: Retail
      • Tight cost controls in general
    • Worst: Government
      • Least cost controls
  • By Size
    • Smaller is better: cost, duration, team
  • Stats

Q7503, Fall 2002

project home page
Project Home Page
  • Give your project an intranet page
  • Central repository for project status, documents and other resources
  • McConnell’s example

Q7503, Fall 2002

continuous process improvement
Continuous Process Improvement

Herbsleb, 1994, “Benefits of CMM-Based Software Process Improvement”

Q7503, Fall 2002

tools
Tools
  • Project Control Panel

Q7503, Fall 2002

final exam review
Final Exam Review
  • Format: Similar to last one
    • Open questions and multiple choice

Q7503, Fall 2002

risk management
Risk Management
  • Risk Management
    • Types of risk: schedule, cost, requirements
  • Risk Identification
    • Involve the team
  • Risk Analysis
    • Risk Exposure (RE = Prob. * Size)
    • Probability is 15%, size is 10 weeks
      • .15 * 10w = 1.5w
  • Risk Prioritization
    • 80-20 rule; large size or prob. 1st; grouping; ignoring

Q7503, Fall 2002

risk management21
Risk Management
  • Risk Control
    • Plan
  • Risk Resolution (5 Types)
    • Avoidance (ex: scrub)
    • Assumption (just monitor)
    • Control (contingency)
    • Knowledge Acquisition (learn/buy/prototype)
    • Transfer (off project, team, critical path)
  • Risk Monitoring
    • Top 10 Risk List (McConnell’s example)

Q7503, Fall 2002

requirements
Requirements
  • Functional vs. Non-functional (technical)
    • Functional
      • Features
    • Non-functional
      • Reliability
      • Usability
      • Performance
      • Operations: systems management, installation
      • Other: legal, packaging, hardware

Q7503, Fall 2002

requirements23
Requirements
  • Requirements gathering techniques
    • Interviews
    • Document Analysis
    • Brainstorming
    • Requirements Workshops
    • Prototyping
    • Use Cases
    • Storyboards

Q7503, Fall 2002

teams
Teams
  • Start with objective
    • Problem resolution, creativity, tactical execution
  • Decentralized vs. Centralized
  • Large teams
    • Decompose via hierarchy, into optimal sizes
  • Optimal size?
    • 4-6 developers
  • Hiring
    • Hire for trait – train for skill

Q7503, Fall 2002

team models
Team Models
  • Business team
    • Technical lead + team; most common
    • Can be strong or loose hierarchy
  • Chief-programmer team
    • Surgical team; star at top; ego issues
  • Skunkworks team
    • Off-site; pro: buy-in; con: minimal visibility
  • Feature team
    • Interdisciplinary; balanced
  • SWAT team
    • Highly skilled/specialized; Ex: security team

Q7503, Fall 2002

resource allocation
Resource Allocation
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix
    • Who does What
  • Skills Matrix
    • Who has what skills
  • Hiring Guidelines
    • Hire for trait, train for skill
    • Smart, gets things done
  • Balance

Q7503, Fall 2002

feature set control
Feature Set Control
  • Minimal Specification
  • Requirements Scrubbing
  • Versioned Development
  • Effective Change Control
  • Feature Cuts

Q7503, Fall 2002

change control
Change Control
  • Average project has 25% requirements change
  • Sources of change
  • Change control is a process
  • Overly detailed specs. or prolonged requirements phase are not the answer
  • Change Control Board (CCB)
    • Structure, process, triage

Q7503, Fall 2002

configuration control
Configuration Control
  • Items: code, documents
  • Change & Version control
  • SCM
  • Configuration Management Plan
  • Maintenance

Q7503, Fall 2002

exam review
Exam Review
  • Project Roles
  • Project Control
    • Planning
    • Measuring
    • Evaluating
    • Acting
  • Binary Reporting

Q7503, Fall 2002

earned value analysis
Earned Value Analysis
  • BCWS
  • BCWP
      • Earned value
  • ACWP
  • Variances
        • CV (BCWP – BCWS), SV (BCWP – ACWP)
  • Ratios
        • SPI (BCWP / BCWS), CPI (BCWP / ACWP)
        • CR (SPI x CPI)
  • Benefits
    • Consistency, forecasting, early warning

Q7503, Fall 2002

slide32
CMM
  • Capability Maturity Model
  • Five levels
    • Initial
    • Repeatable
    • Defined
    • Managed
    • Optimizing
  • Links: Diagram, Levels

Q7503, Fall 2002

tools languages
Tools & Languages
  • Impact of platform and language choice
    • Staffing requirements
    • Methodology
      • Cobol != Java
    • Tools and infrastructure
      • Software, hardware
  • Classic Mistake: silver bullet syndrome
    • Over-reliance/expectation on tool benefits

Q7503, Fall 2002

qa testing
QA & Testing
  • Testing “Phases”
    • Unit
    • Integration
    • System
    • User Acceptance Testing
  • Testing Types
    • Black-box
    • White-box

Q7503, Fall 2002

qa testing35
QA & Testing
  • Static vs. Dynamic Testing
  • Automated Testing
    • Pros and cons
  • Defect tracking
  • Integration: 2 types
    • Top down
    • Bottom up

Q7503, Fall 2002

defect metrics
Defect Metrics
  • Open Bugs (outstanding defects)
        • Ranked by severity
  • Open Rates
        • How many new bugs over a period of time
  • Close Rates
        • How many closed over that same period
        • Ex: 10 bugs/day
  • Change Rate
        • Number of times the same issue updated
  • Fix Failed Counts
        • Fixes that didn’t really fix (still open)
        • One measure of “vibration” in project

Q7503, Fall 2002

migration and rollout
Migration and Rollout
  • Migration Strategies
    • 1. Flash Cut
      • A. Immediate Replacement
      • B. Parallel Operation
    • 2. Staged
      • One part at a time

Q7503, Fall 2002

exam review ms project
Exam Review – MS-Project
  • Effort-driven scheduling
    • Duration = Work / Units (D = W/U)
    • Work = Duration * Units (W = D*U)
    • Units = Work / Duration (U = W/D)

Q7503, Fall 2002

resource leveling
Resource Leveling
  • 5 Leveling techniques
    • Activity shifting
    • Activity splitting
    • Activity stretching
    • Resource substitution
    • Allocating overtime

Q7503, Fall 2002

migration
Migration
  • Migration Plan
  • Importance of 2-way communication
    • Find-out customer’s key dates
  • Minimize intrusiveness
  • Back-out Plan
  • Data Conversion

Q7503, Fall 2002

migration41
Migration
  • Flash-Cut Migration
    • Immediate Replacement
    • Parallel Operation
  • Staged Migration

Q7503, Fall 2002

other final steps
Other Final Steps
  • Roll-Out
    • Release Check-List
  • Training
    • More than just end-users
      • Users, systems ops, maintenance developers, sales
  • Documentation
      • Many types: End-user, sales & marketing, operations, design

Q7503, Fall 2002

project recovery
Project Recovery
  • 3 Approaches
    • 1. Cut the size of the software
    • 2. Increase process productivity
    • 3. Slip the schedule, proceed with damage control
  • People Steps
    • Morale; focus; re-assign
  • Process Steps
    • Fix classic mistakes; mini-milestones
  • Product Steps
    • Stabilize; trim features; take out the garbage

Q7503, Fall 2002

post project reviews
Post Project Reviews
  • Focused on process not people
  • Steps
    • Prepare survey form
    • Email team with survey and schedule meeting
      • Gather data
    • Conduct meeting
    • Prepare PPR report

Q7503, Fall 2002

homework
Homework
  • Next week: Final Exam

Q7503, Fall 2002

questions
Questions?

Q7503, Fall 2002