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Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places PowerPoint Presentation
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Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places

Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places

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Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places

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  1. Tourism Marketing: Producing Places/Consuming Places

  2. Lecture Outline: • Elements of Tourism Industry • Historical Development of Tourism • Theories for Understanding (Post)Modern Place Marketing • Examples: Tourism Marketing as Representation

  3. Concepts of Tourism • A complex phenomenon • A human experience • A worldwide industry

  4. Characteristics of tourism • Time • Distance • Travel • Away from home • Purpose in non-work related (leisure)

  5. Components of the tourism industry • Transportation • Accommodation • Tourist attractions: natural, built, created • Travel agents • Tour operators • Travel-related services • Government bodies – national and international

  6. Experience Economy: Tourism as consumption • Tourism, like leisure, can also be thought of in terms of CONSUMPTION! • The tourist ‘product’ – e.g., a package holiday

  7. Tourism and Leisure • Tourism can be considered to be a form of leisure • Tourism (as leisure activity) has developed as a commercial activity • Is now a major earner, makes major contribution to the economy

  8. Development of tourism Can trace its progressive development : • from INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL • through groups and expeditions • to MASS TOURISM • to (INDIVIDUALIZED)MASS TOURISM (postmodern tourism)

  9. Developmental factors Tourism requires people with: • ABILITY (money and time) • MOBILITY (transport) and • MOTIVATION (desire, determination) to travel A history of tourism is a history of the development of these three factors

  10. Travel in Ancient Societies(Egypt and Greece) • Empires grew, and ‘business travel’ increased (administration of the regions) • Evidence also of pleasure trips - festivals, and Olympic Games • Pyramids, tombs and temples were the wonders of the ancient world • Prompted travel to see them – ‘gazed upon’

  11. Travel in the Roman Empire • Travel flourished • Trade and military activity encouraged excellent roads (some still in existence) • Common language and currency • Romans sought to escape the cities in summer heat • Moved to seaside and hillside villas

  12. Travel in the Middle Ages • 500 AD - Fall of the Roman Empire - roads fell into disrepair • Travel became dangerous and difficult • Undertaken largely on foot • Undertaken for purposes of trade or religion only - e.g., pilgrimages • Endured rather than enjoyed - “travail”! • Most ordinary people would spend their lives in one fixed locality

  13. 16th – 17th Centuries • Establishment of “The Grand Tour” - an aristocratic concept • “Taking a year out” • Aristocraticyoungmen in the presence of their tutors • Cultural and political education on a prescribed route • France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands • Befitting men for life in politics at court

  14. 17th – 18th CenturiesMain focus : Development of Health Tourism • Health resorts evolved across Europe • Based on the supposed health-giving properties of the sea and mineral waters • Led to the growth of seaside and spa resorts still popular today • Spa towns - primarily for invalids e.g., Baden-Baden (Germany), Bath (England) • Became fashionable resorts for those with leisure, money and transport

  15. 18th – 19th CenturiesPeriod of Industrialisation • Major effect of industry on leisure and tourism • Prior to this period, only the upper classes had ability, mobility and motivation to travel (horses and carriages) • INDUSTRIALISATION created : • Working class with income • Desire to escapefrom the city • Steam transport for travel (trains, boats)

  16. 18th – 19th CenturiesMass Seaside Tourism Began due to : • Development of steam boats and trains (1832) linking urban and coastal areas • First for freight, later, passengers • Introduction of holidays (intended to improve productivity) • Public holidays - when whole communities would travel en masse to the coast

  17. Portugal

  18. South-East England

  19. East-German Seaside Resort

  20. Mass Seaside Tourism • Development of a tourism infrastructure • Small fishing villages developed into resorts • Blackpool, Ruegen, Biarritz • Promenades • Accommodation

  21. Mass Seaside TourismPackage Trips Development of ‘package trips’ • 1841 - ThomasCook’s first package trip

  22. Mass Seaside Tourism in England Social differentiation • Social differentiation of resorts depended on transport links • Resorts linked to the northern industrial base were mainly working-class - Blackpool • Southern resorts mainly middle-class - Bournemouth, Torquay • Middle classes also discovered Europe - the Alps, the Riviera

  23. Early 20th Century • 1920s and 30s saw legal holidays acts all over Europe - ensured week-long holidays, stimulated mass tourism • Also, development of ‘holidaycamps’ • Development of countryside holidays • In 1939: • 30000 weekly campers on English camp grounds. • Even more in Germany (although numbers difficult to decipher)

  24. Post Word War IIFurther growth in Tourism Activity • Social change • War experience widened perspectives • Stimulated desire to travel • Increased leisure time and income • Growth in car ownership • Spread of five-day week • Invention of ‘the weekend’ • new unit of free time

  25. Post Word War IIFurther growth in Tourism Activity • Development of hotel chains • 1960s and 70s in Europe: • Tourism Acts • Created national tourist boards for domestic and overseas tourism promotion • TheCanadianTourismCommissionwasfoundedin1992

  26. Post Word War IIFurther growth in Tourism Activity • Increased foreign travel • 1950s - 2 million Europeans took holidays abroad • 1970s - 10 million abroad • France and Spain (Costas) made up 1/3 of the market • Product - sun, sea and sand

  27. Trends in the 1980s and 1990s • Move towards more flexible holiday formats • Villas, timeshares, self-catering • Diverse Travel Formats: • Specialised Interest Areas • Further technological improvements in Transportation

  28. Trends in the 1980s and 1990s • Personalised packages: • Long-haul destinations for mass package holidays (e.g., Florida) • Eco-tourism - environmentally aware tourism • Growth in cultural and activity tourism • Growth in short-break tourism • demise of the two-week summer holiday • postmodern lifestyles

  29. Late 90’s and 21st Century • Novelty and specialist tourism • Newdestinations, ‘man-made’ resorts • Greater segmentation of the market • ABILITYhas increased - many have more free time, greater disposable income • MOBILITYhas increased - improved and cheaper travel technology • MOTIVATION has increased

  30. Late 90’s and 21st CenturyTourist Motivation MOTIVATIONto participate in tourism has increased due to : • Substantial media exposure - has greatly raised consumer awareness • Perceived ‘need’ to escape the stress of ‘postmodern’ urban lifestyles • Recognition of frequent holidays as a necessity, rather than a luxury

  31. Postmodern Tourism • Postmodern culture, leisure and lifestyles– new forms of consumer-orientated, commodified leisure • Leisure users are defined by their consumption patterns

  32. Simulation and hyperreality Fragmentation Individualisation Commodification Consumer sovereignty Time compression Style replaces substance Characteristics of Postmodernismand Postmodern Leisure and Lifestyles

  33. INDIVIDUALISATION Central leisure institutions disappear Postmodern leisure focuses increasingly on individual consumption at the expense of traditional social group and community activity Relationships fluid. Networks instead of community. Socialities void of emotional dependence Leisure example Individualistic sports Independent and single travelling Electronic leisure games (Playstation, Nintendo, GameBoy, X-Box) Videos and interactive DVDs Home computing Much home-based leisure – home is compartmented into individual ‘leisure spaces’ Characteristics of Postmodernismwith leisure examples

  34. INDIVIDUALISATION Leisure examples (cont) Children having their own rooms, TVs and PCs Leisure shopping as personal consumption Personal trainers and individualised fitness workouts Lifestyle advisers Solitary consumption of fast food replacing traditional communal family meal-times Relationships until further notice Characteristics of Postmodernismwith leisure examples

  35. FRAGMENTATION The inability to maintain established boundaries, categories and relationships Consumption and production Work and home Private and public Vast amounts of leisure choice (20-screen multiplex cinemas; numerous TV,satellite and cable channels) Built-in obsolescence(fast cars, designer clothes, consumer electronics and software) Ever more specialized consumer products Leisure examples Shopping as leisure Homeworking, housework, DIY and leisure Arts/entertainment continuum Leisure spaces in the home High, low and popular culture – blurring of boundaries Characteristics of Postmodernismwith leisure examples

  36. SIMULATION AND HYPERREALITY In postmodern leisure, simulated, man-made, contrived and inauthentic experiences predominate over the traditional and authentic Leisure examples Virtual reality in leisure Man-made tourist attractions and resorts (Center Parcs, Sun City) Modern theme parks Disneyland Paintball ‘Gladiators’ Characteristics of Postmodernismwith leisure examples

  37. COMMODIFICATION The transformation, packaging and marketing of a leisure-related service into a saleable ‘product’ Arts products, leisure products, sports products, tourism products, etc. Leisure examples Tourist package holidays Gym fitness packages Celebrity signings of CDs at concerts The sale of sports packages by cable, satellite and internet Shopping as leisure Characteristics of Postmodernismwith leisure examples

  38. Characteristics of Postmodernismwith leisure examples COMMODIFICATION OF TIME • Time in postmodern life is always in short supply • Time can be exchanged for money through the purchase of labour-saving devices, employing home helps, buying convenience foods, etc • This frees up time for use for leisure • Time can be ‘bought’ • So time itself becomes a commodity

  39. BREAK!

  40. Postmodern Tourism: Staging Authenticity • Catering to the postmodern tourist who • Seeks rapidly changing art/enter-/edutainment • Seeks extraordinary and individualistic experiences • Who expects experiences to be produced but presented as real • Has not always time to cross the globe to visit. • Who has been socialized into consuming by gazing - the tourist gaze is demanding

  41. The development of the tourist gaze • Tourist landscapes are ‘consumed’ by the tourist who ‘gazes’ upon them • The idea is of • seeing as discovering • interpreting the seen as aesthetically significant • and determine its difference to the mundane.

  42. The tourist gaze • The ‘gaze’ is defined in terms of difference • Perceived strangeness (but only to tourist) • Exotic, pleasurable • Distinguished by semiotics - ‘signifiers’ and symbolic icons – e.g., Eiffel Tower, the Pyramids, Taj Mahal • rational work and seeks efficiency

  43. Authenticity • The gaze is a construct • How authenticare the images consumed? • Tourism as pilgrimage – a quest for the authentic • Authenticity versus ‘staged authenticity’ • Staged authenticity protects hosts from intrusion, yet allows commercial benefits of tourism • Can any form of tourism be totally inauthentic?

  44. Caves at Lascaux

  45. Caves at Lascaux

  46. Caves at Lascaux